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97 AMARANTHACEAE [1]

Marco F Duretto [2], Dennis I Morris 2,

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees; stems sometimes succulent and articulate; monoecious or dioecious. Leaves opposite or alternate, exstipulate, simple, usually entire, sometimes ± succulent, frequently much reduced. Inflorescence axillary or terminal, cymose or a modified cyme or a spike or panicle, flowers sometimes solitary; bracts or bracteoles absent or present. Flowers often small, generally actinomorphic, bisexual or unisexual; sometimes sterile flowers present and modified as hooks or bristles subtending fertile flowers. Tepals in a single whorl, 0–5(6), scarious or membranous or herbaceous, free or fused at the base. Stamens usually as many as and opposite to the tepals; filaments free or united in a short tube at the base, the tube sometimes producing pseudostaminodes alternating with the stamens; anthers tetrasporangiate, dithecal, opening by longitudinal slits. Carpels 2–3(–6); ovary superior or half-inferior, unilocular; ovules 1-several. Fruit usually dry, indehiscent or irregularly dehiscing or circumscissile, or a berry, sometimes with a succulent pericarp, often surrounded by persistent perianth. Seeds laterally compressed.

A family of 174 genera and 2100–2500 species; widespread in tropical, subtropical and, to a lesser extent, temperate regions of the world. The family is an important component of arid and semi-arid floras, especially of Australia and North America, and often found in saline habitats. In Australia there are about 43 genera and about 450 species. Australia is a centre of diversity for the family with many endemic genera and species, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions and south-western Western Australia (see Wilson 1984; Shepherd & Wilson 2007; Cabrera et al. 2009).

The Amaranthaceae are placed in the large order Caryophyllales near Caryophyllaceae (almost cosmopolitan) and Achatocarpaceae (SW USA to S America) (see Stevens 2009 & references therein). Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae have for some time been considered to be closely related (see Kühn et al. 1993; Townsend 1993). Recent advances in systematics, in particular molecular systematics, have shown that it is not possible to maintain the families as distinct (see Downie et al. 1997; APG 1998; Cuénoud et al. 2002; APG II 2003; Kadereit et al. 2003; Haston et al. 2007; Stevens 2009; APG III 2009; and references therein) and so they have been combined. There are also excellent arguments to retain the two families as distinct (see Shepherd 2008) and further work and changes are both needed and expected. Genera treated here under Amaranthaceae that were traditionally placed in the Chenopodiaceae are Atriplex, Bassia, Beta, Chenopodium, Dysphania, Einadia, Rhagodia, Salsola, Sarcocornia, Suaeda, Tecticornia and Threlkeldia.

The relationships of the diverse Australian members of the family have recently been the subject of a number of studies using molecular data (see Shepherd & Wilson 2007; Cabrera et al. 2009). These studies indicate that the delimitation of genera is not natural and several genera have been combined (Shepherd & Wilson 2007) or probably need to be combined (Cabrera et al. 2009). Further work is required and more name changes are anticipated.

Amaranthaceae contains important agricultural and food crops. These include cultivars of Amaranthus (edible seed, Americas), Beta (Beetroot, Sugarbeet, Spinach Beet, Swiss Chard), Chenopodium (vegetable, fruit and seed crops) and Spinacia L. (Spinach). Native species of Atriplex, Bassia, Chenopodium and Rhagodia are important components of grazing in parts of semiarid and arid Australia. Several species of Chenopodium and Salsola are common weeds.

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Synonymy: Atriplicaceae, Betaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Dysphaniaceae, Salicorniaceae, Salsolaceae, Spinaciaceae.

Key references: Wilson (1984); Kühn et al. (1993); Townsend (1993); Walsh (1996).

External resources: accepted names with synonymy & distribution in Australia (APC); author & publication abbreviations (IPNI); mapping (ALA, AVH, NVA); nomenclature (APC, APNI, IPNI).

1.

Stems fleshy, articulate and appearing leafless

2

1:

Stems leafy and not articulate

3

2.

Plant a herb or subshrub with procumbent rooting stems; upright stems not branched; flowers 3–9(–12) on each side of a stem article; stamens 2

13 Sarcocornia

2:

Plant a bushy shrub; upright stems usually with obvious opposite decussate branching; flowers (1–)3 on each side of a stem article; stamen 1

14 Tecticornia

3.

Perianth scarious (thin & dry)

4

3:

Perianth herbaceous

7

4.

Leaves opposite

1 Alternanthera

4:

Leaves alternate

5

5.

Tepals plumose

3 Ptilotus

5:

Tepals glabrous

6

6.

Flowers in cymose clusters forming axillary or terminal spikes or panicles

2 Amaranthus

6:

Flowers solitary, axillary

4 Hemichroa

7.

Leaves narrow, sub-terete or plano-convex, often ± fleshy; hairs (if present) simple, bifurcate or stellate, neither glandular or mealy

8

7:

Leaves flat, if terete then mealy when young

11

8.

Young stems and branches conspicuously woolly-hairy; tepals enlarged in fruit, with a transverse wing

10 Bassia

8:

Young stems and branches glabrous or sparsely hairy or with short axillary pubescence only; tepals not enlarged in fruit, without a transverse wing

9

9.

Flowers clustered, at least in the lower leaf-axils; bracteoles of lateral flowers 3, minute, hyaline

15 Suaeda

9:

Flowers solitary in leaf-axils; bracteoles of flowers absent or exceeding perianth

10

10.

Leaves linear to oblanceolate; tepals c. 2 mm long, membranous, not hardening in fruit; stamens 3

11 Threlkeldia

10:

Leaves narrow-triangular or subterete; tepals 2.5–3 mm long, membraneous at first, hardening in fruit; stamens 5

16 Salsola

11.

Plants glabrous, leaves glossy, entire; ovary semi-inferior; fruiting perianth woody or corky towards base, adhering in a cluster

12 Beta

11:

Plants usually mealy with vesicular hairs, at least when young, or glabrous; ovary superior; fruiting perianth not woody or corky, sometimes clustered but not adhering in a cluster

10

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12.

Flowers unisexual; male flowers with a 5 lobed perianth and 5 stamens; female flowers lacking a perianth, enclosed within paired appressed bracteoles enlarging in fruit, often becoming spongy, corky and/or with dorsal outgrowths

5 Atriplex

12:

Flowers unisexual or bisexual, all with a perianth, 1–5-lobed, 1–5 stamens; fruit not enclosed within paired bracteoles

13

13.

Plants herbaceous or soft-wooded; fruit dry or rarely perianth fleshy

14

13:

Plants shrubby or wiry; fruit a succulent berry

15

14.

Tepals 3–5, not hooded and inflated towards apex; stamens 1–5; glabrous or variously pubescent annuals or perennials

6 Chenopodium

14:

Tepals 1–5, hooded and inflated towards apex in fruit; stamens 1–2; glandular pubescent annuals

7 Dysphania

15.

Plants with bisexual and female flowers, wiry; flowers with 1–3 stamens

8 Einadia

15:

Plant dioecious, shrubby; flowers with 5 stamens

9 Rhagodia

1 ALTERNANTHERA

Alternanthera Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arb. 28 (1775).

Annual or perennial herbs, monoecious; stems procumbent or ascending, without fleshy articles, pubescent, at least when young. Leaves opposite, subsessile, oblong to narrowly elliptic, margin irregularly and minutely toothed, not spine tipped. Inflorescence axillary or rarely terminal, a head or spike. Flowers small, bisexual, bracteate or bracteolate, bracts not exceeding perianth. Tepals 5, free, scarious, lacking transverse wing. Stamens 2–5. Fruit indehiscent, compressed, broadly obovate. Seed vertical.

A genus of c. 200 species mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; 8 or 9 species (3 naturalized) in Australia.

1 Alternanthera denticulata R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 417 (1810)

Lesser Joyweed, Rock Joyweed

Alternanthera triandra Lam. var. denticulata (R.Br.) Maiden & Betche, Census N.S.W. Pl. 73 (1916). Alternanthera sessilis R.Br. sensu J.D.Hooker, Bot. Antarct. Voy. III. (Fl. Tasman.) 1: 310 (1857) [Brown did not create the combination as stated by Hooker (see APNI)].

Illustrations: Kirkpatrick et al., City Parks & Cemeteries: Tasmania’s Remnant Grasslands & Grassy Woodlands 115, pl. 25-1 (1988); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 214, fig. 38c-d (1996); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria 3 (2000); Jacobs & Lapinpuro, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 250 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 92 (2006).

Perennial herb; stems prostrate and ascending 10–50(–90?) cm long, often rooting at the nodes, glabrous except for tomentose nodes and decurrent lines of hairs on the youngest branches. Leaves 1.5–6(–8) cm long, linear or narrow lanceolate, glabrous except for a few hairs on the midrib and the margins at the base, these deciduous in older leaves, margins entire or minutely denticulate, midrib prominent on both sides, apex obtuse or acute, minutely mucronate. Spikes sessile in the leaf axils, globular to oblong, 5–8 mm in diameter; bracts membranous, ovate, c. 1.25 mm long, bracteoles narrow lanceolate, c. 1.5 mm long. Tepals pinkish, becoming white and shining, c. 3 mm long at maturity, lanceolate, acute, midrib prominent, margins minutely denticulate above. Stamens 3–5; anther c. 0.3 mm long. Style short; stigma capitate. Fruit c. 2.25 mm wide, broad obcordate. Flowering &/or fruiting Nov.-Jul.

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Tas. (TNM); all Australian states, New Zealand. A rare species, collected in the Launceston area and on the South Esk River. Found growing in wet areas such as in Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest, Poa grassland, and rocky areas along rivers. Often found in disturbed areas.

2 * AMARANTHUS

Amaranthus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 989 (1753).

Annual or less commonly perennial herbs, usually monoecious. Leaves alternate, usually petiolate; lamina entire. Inflorescence of small cymes forming axillary or terminal spikes or panicles. Flowers small, mostly unisexual, each usually subtended by a bract and 2 bracteoles and these frequently unequal in size, occasionally spiny. Male flowers usually scattered among female flowers at the tips of the inflorescence. Tepals 2–5, membranous, green, red, brown or hyaline, persistent. Stamens as many as and opposite tepals, free. Fruiting pericarp dry, membranous, indehiscent or circumscissile. Seed vertical, lenticular, smooth, shining, black or dark broom.

A genus of c. 70 species in temperate and tropical regions, chiefly the Americas. Australia has 26 species (11 native); in Tasmania 3 species, all introduced. The genus contains many species of economic importance including crop plants, ornamentals and weeds.

Key reference: Palmer (2009).

1.

Flowers in small axillary clusters

2

1:

Flowers in dense spikes or spike-like panicles, terminal or in upper axils

3

2.

Bracts and bracteoles spinescent, c. twice as long as perianth

3 A. albus

2:

Bracts and bracteoles not spinescent, shorter than perianth

A. graecizans +

3.

Plant procumbent; fruit indehiscent

1 A. deflexus

3:

Plant erect or decumbent; fruit dehiscent

4

4.

Bracts subtending inflorescence branches not spinescent, c. 3 mm long

2 A. powellii

4:

Bracts subtending inflorescence branches spiny, in pairs, 10–15 mm long

A. spinosus +

+ Amaranthus graecizans L. subsp. silvestris (Vill.) Brenan and A. spinosus L. have been recorded from a domestic garden in Launceston and from a forest nursery at Perth respectively. Neither species appears to have persisted.

1 * Amaranthus deflexus L., Mant. Pl. Altera 295 (1771)

Spreading Amaranth

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 204, fig. 36j (1996); Jacobs & Lapinpuro, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 252 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 93 (2006).

Procumbent perennial; stems up to 40 cm long, brownish green, younger stems and branches with crisped multicellular hairs. Leaves with petioles to 2 cm long, sparsely septate-hairy; lamina 0.5–4.5 cm long, 0.3–2.5 cm wide, trullate, entire, margins very narrowly membranous, apex acute, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface with scattered septate hairs on the prominent veins. Inflorescence a terminal spike, c. 5 cm long, branched below, a few flowers clustered in the upper leaf axils; bracts 1–1.5 mm long, ovate-acute, membranous, keel green. Tepals 2–3, 2–3 mm long, oblanceolate-acute, wings membranous, keel green or brown. Stamens 3. Fruit brownish, with 3 greenish ribs, indehiscent, c. 3 mm long at maturity, ellipsoid. Seed ovate-lenticular, occupying the lower half of their pericarp. Flowering &/or fruiting Dec.-May.

Tas. (TNM, TSE); also naturalized in SA, NSW, Vic.; native to South America, widely naturalized, eg. in New Zealand, North America, the Mediterranean. Found in stockyards, along roadsides and in waste and urban areas. Most collections are from the greater Hobart area.

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2 * Amaranthus powellii S.Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 10: 347 (1875)

Powell’s Amaranth, Amaranth

Amaranthus hybridus sensu W.M.Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 566 (1967), non L. (1753). Amaranthus hybridus subsp. incurvatus sensu W.M.Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 566 (1967), non (Timeroy ex Gren. & Godr.) Brenan (1957). Amaranthus retroflexus sensu W.M.Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 566 (1967), non L. (1753).

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 204, fig. 36f (1996); Jacobs & Lapinpuro, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 252 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 94 (2006).

Erect annual herb up to c. 1 m high, glabrous or the young stems and leaves with a few crisped septate hairs; stems angled. Leaves with petioles to 5 cm long, sparsely septate-hairy; lamina 1–10 cm long, 0.6–4.5 cm wide, narrow to broad-trullate, margins undulate, upper stem leaves much smaller. Inflorescence a panicle with a terminal spike up to 15(–25?) cm long, with shorter ± erect spikes in the upper leaf axils. Bracts of female flowers up to 6 mm long, ovate margins membranous, keel green, prolonged as a subulate mucro. Tepals 5, 1 or 2 longer than the others, 2.5–3 mm long, keeled, acuminate, similar to the bracts. Male flowers shorter than the females. Stamens 5. Fruit circumscissile at maturity ± equalling the perianth. Seed brown to black, 1.25–1.5 mm long, ovoid-lenticular, shining. Flowering &/or fruiting Jan.-Jun.

Tas. (FLI, TNM, TNS, TSE, TSR); also naturalized in Qld, SA, NSW, Vic.; native to North America, widely naturalized including in New Zealand. A widespread weed of vegetable crops, hop paddocks and arable areas generally though also found in waste and other disturbed areas.

3 * Amaranthus albus L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1268 (1759

Stiff Tumbleweed, Tumbleweed

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 204, fig. 36h (1996); Jacobs & Lapinpuro, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 252 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 93 (2006).

Much-branched erect or decumbent annual up to 50(–80) cm high; stems and branches pale, rigid, glabrous except for minute glandular or septate hairs sparsely scattered along the upper stems and branches, stem base sometimes reddish. Leaves 0.5–2(–5 outside Tas.) cm long including the petiole, 0.2–1.5(–2) cm wide; lamina grey-green, lanceolate, margins entire, veins prominent on abaxial surface, undulate, base cuneate, apex acute with a pungent mucro. Inflorescence of short, few-flowered spikes in axillary clusters along the stem and branches; bracts 3–4 mm long, narrow-lanceolate, folded, keeled, attenuate, apex pungent. Tepals 3, pale brown, unequal, 1–2 mm long, lanceolate, acute. Stamens 3. Fruit circumscissile at maturity ± equalling the perianth or slightly exceeding it. Seed black, c. 1 mm diam., deeply lenticular, shining, margin rounded, red-brown. Flowering &/or fruiting Jan.-Apr.

Tas. (KIN, FLI, TNM, TSE); also naturalized in WA, SA, NSW, Vic.; native to North America, naturalized in New Zealand and other temperate regions. Occasional in the north and east of the state in disturbed areas such as along railway lines and weedy riparian environments.

3 PTILOTUS

Ptilotus R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 415 (1810).

Synonymy: Trichinium R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 414 (1810); Ptilotus section Trichinium (R.Br.) Poir., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 [Engler & Prantl.] 16c: 56 (1934). Dipteranthemum F.Muell., S. Sci. Rec. 3(12): 281 (1884).

Perennial, rarely annual, herbs or undershrubs or shrubs, frequently with a woody rootstock, monoecious. Leaves radical or cauline and alternate, sessile or petiolate. Inflorescence a dense or rarely interrupted terminal or axillary, globular to cylindrical spike. Flowers bisexual, often brightly coloured (not in Tas.), each subtended by a bract 6 of 29 and 2 bracteoles; bracts and bracteoles scarious, shining. Tepals 5, free or shortly united at the base, linear to sublinear, rigid, scarious at the tips or also along the upper margins, abaxial surface usually plumose or woolly, adaxial surface glabrous or the inner segments woolly at the base. Stamens 5, unequal, 1–3 of them often sterile; filaments united at the base in a membranous cup adnate to the perianth tube or free from it, occasionally with staminodes alternating with the stamens. Fruit indehiscent, enclosed within the persistent perianth. Seed basal, on a long funicle.

A genus of c. 100 species confined to Australian except for 1 species that extends to southern Malaysia. The majority of species are endemic to the drier regions of mainland Australia.

1 Ptilotus spathulatus (R.Br.) Poir., Encyl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 4: 620 (1816), f. spathulatus

Pussy Tails

Trichinium spathulatum R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 415 (1810). Trichinium mucronatum Nees, Pl. Preiss. 1(4): 628 (1845).

Illustrations: Kirkpatrick et al., City Parks & Cemeteries: Tasmania’s Remnant Grasslands & Grassy Woodlands 115, pl. 25-2 (1988); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 211, fig. 37i-j (1996); Jacobs & Lapinpuro, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 258 (2000); Cameron, A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania, 3rd edn, 95, pl. 233 (2000); Gilfedder et al., The Nature of the Midlands 88 (2003); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 88 (2004); Simmons et al., A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania, 4th edn, 127 (2008).

Perennial herb with a thick woody rootstock; septate-hairy on the upper stems and leaves and inflorescence, hairs glochidiate at the nodes; stems decumbent or ascending, radiating from a flat rosette of radical leaves, 5–20 cm long, sometimes branched above. Radical leaves up to 8 cm long, glabrous except for short crisped hairs on the midrib below, narrowed to a petiole, lamina ovate or spathulate, mucronate; stem leaves up to 2.5 cm long, scarcely petiolate, lamina narrow-ovate or spathulate, younger leaves with glabrous adaxial surfaces and with scattered hairs on the margins and midrib on the abaxial surface. Flower spikes ovate to cylindrical, yellowish-green, shining, upturned, 3–10 cm long, to 2 cm diam., elongating as the fruits mature; bracts pale brown, shining, 1-nerved, 6–8 mm long, lanceolate, acute, abaxial surface with a few long hairs; bracteoles hyaline, ± equalling the bract, 1-nerved, mucronate with long hairs along the midrib outside. Perianth 8–14 mm long, plumose segments greenish with long erect, septate barbed hairs, apex glabrous, membranous, pink, fading stramineous, inner segments narrower than the outer with long crisped hairs on the margins at the base, these confused around the ovary and filaments. Fertile stamens usually 3. Ovary stipitate, laterally compressed, margins hairy above; style eccentric. Flowering &/or fruiting Sep.-Apr.

Tas. (FLI, TNM, TSE); also WA, SA, NSW, Vic. Found in the eastern half of the state on dry hillsides, often on shallow soils or rock plates, open sites or under light tree cover or in grass and herb fields. The other form of the species, f. angustatus Benl, is found in Western Australia and South Australia and differs from the typical form by the narrower spikes and perianth tips distinctly projecting beyond the less dense and shorter dorsal pubescence.

4 HEMICHROA

Hemichroa R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 409 (1810).

Perennial herbs or low spreading monoecious shrubs; branches glabrous apart from young shoots. Leaves alternate, sessile, linear or lanceolate, thick, fleshy, piano-convex, mucronate. Flowers solitary, bisexual, axillary, sessile, subtended by 2 scarious bracteoles. Tepals 5, subequal, rigid, erect, persistent. Stamens 2 or 5; filaments united at the base; staminodes 0. Fruit indehiscent, pericarp membranous.

An endemic Australian genus of 3 species.

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1 Hemichroa pentandra R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 409 (1810)

Trailing Hemichroa

Polycnemum pentandrum (R.Br.) F.Muell., Pap. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania 1877: 15 (1878).

Illustrations: Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 576, fig. 122 (1967); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 204, fig. 36a-b (1996); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 163 (2001).

Perennial with slender, branched, widely-spreading rhizomes producing many erect or ascending aerial branches 3–20 cm high, glabrous except for soft crisped hairs towards the tips of the young branches and at the basal margins of young leaves. Leaves sessile, 8–16 mm long, linear to linear-oblanceolate, thick, fleshy, plano-convex, apex mucronate. Bracteoles ovate-acute, 2.5–3 mm long, 1-nerved. Tepals pink, white or greenish, c. 4 mm long, subequal, ovate-lanceolate, 1–3-nerved, scarious. Stamens 5; filaments pink, united at the base in a short annular cup; anthers c. 0.6 mm long. Ovary pink, somewhat flattened; styles 2, c. 0.75 mm long, subulate. Ovule on a long funicle. Flowering &/or fruiting Sep.-Mar.

Tas. (FIN, KIN, TSE); also WA, SA, Vic. Found in the north and east of the state on the margins of salt-marshes in coastal and estuarine situations.

5 ATRIPLEX

Atriplex L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1052 (1753).

Synonymy: Obione Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 198, t. 126, fig. 5 (1791). Theleophyton Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 115 (1849). Neopreissia Ulbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2 [Engler & Prantl] 16c: 519, fig. 195 (1934). [For full synonymy see Wilson (1984); Kühn et al. (1993); APNI].

Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, monoecious or dioecious, often mealy, with vesicle hairs which may collapse, becoming scurfy or scaly. Leaves alternate or sometimes the basal ones opposite, petiolate, flat to semiterete, entire, lobed or toothed. Inflorescence axillary, clusters of few flowers; clusters commonly arranged into spicate or racemose inflorescences. Flowers small, unisexual, sessile or subsessile. Male flowers ebracteate; perianth (3–)5 lobed; stamens (3–)5; pistillode minute or absent. Females flowers subtended by a pair of bracteoles which enlarge enclosing the fruit, the bracteoles variously winged, inflated, toothed and with appendage; tepals 0(4–5); staminodes absent. Pericarp membranous. Seed lenticular, usually erect, occasionally horizontal, occasionally dimorphic.

A cosmopolitan genus of over 250 species found mainly in subtropical and temperate regions often in saline habitats. In Australia there are about 60 species with 3 or 4 naturalized, 1 shared with New Zealand and the remainder endemic. The genus is classified into a number of subgenera and sections that are outlined, for Australian species, by Wilson (1984).

Key reference: Wilson (1984).

1.

Shrubs, dioecious or monoecious

2

1:

Annual or perennial herbs, monoecious

3

2.

Leaves glabrous on adaxial surface, white-scaly on abaxial surface; female flowers mostly in terminal and axillary spikes or panicles

7 A. paludosa

2:

Leaves silvery or grey-green on both surfaces; female flowers clustered in axillary glomerules

8 A. cinerea

3.

Plant prostrate, succulent, covered with shining watery bladder-hairs (sandy shores)

9 A. billardierei

3:

Plant prostrate and ascending or erect; leaves not succulent, glabrous to scurfy (various habitats)

4

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4.

Female flowers dimorphic; fruiting bracteoles suborbicular

1 A. hortensis

4:

Female flowers all of one form; fruiting bracteoles rhombic to trullate

5

5.

Plants perennial; leaf venation minutely reticulate

6

5:

Plants annual; leaf venation open

7

6.

Leaf-margins entire or sinuate; fruiting bracteoles glabrescent, veins prominent

5 A. semibaccata

6:

Leaf-margins toothed or shallowly lobed; fruiting bracteoles mealy, veins obscure

6 A. suberecta

7.

Lower leaf-blades truncate, sagittate or hastate at the base, upper leaves triangular or ovate

2 A. prostrata

7:

Lower leaves cuneate at the base, with forwardly-directed basal lobes, upper leaves linear, linear-lanceolate or elliptic

8

8.

Fruiting bracteoles mealy, venation obscure

3 A. patula

8:

Fruiting bracteoles glabrous, shining, with prominent venation

4 A. australasica

1 * ? Atriplex hortensis L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1053 (1753)

Garden Orache

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 139, fig. 27a (1996); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 221 (2006).

Erect, annual, monoecious herb to 2.5m high. Leaves not succulent, petiolate; lower leaves usually opposite, green or purplish-brown, 2–12 cm long, 1.5–10 cm wide, cordate-trullate, entire or dentate, fairly thin; upper leaves alternate, triangular or oblong-lanceolate. Inflorescence terminal, narrowly paniculate or spike-like, flowers numerous, male and female intermixed in clusters. Female flowers dimorphic; the majority with perianth 0, enclosed between a pair of accrescent bracteoles up to 10(–15?) mm long and wide at maturity, broadly ovate, prominently veined, seed red-brown, 2.5–3 mm diam., erect, flattened; other female flowers with 5 tepals and no enclosing bracts, seed black, 1.5–2 mm diam., horizontal, lenticular, shining. Fruiting mainly Aug.-Feb. (non-Tas.), Mar. (Tas. material).

Tas. (TSE); also naturalized in WA, SA, Vic.; possibly native to Asia and maybe E Europe, naturalized in New Zealand. Possibly introduced for culinary and/or horticultural purposes but not now commonly cultivated. The species is doubtfully naturalized as it is known only from only three collections in the Hobart area: two from Brown’s River, Kingston (1951), and the third from Sandy Bay (1963). Wilson (1984) indicated that this taxon may be the result of selection from A. nitens Schkuhr.

2 * Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC., Fl. Franc. (DC. & Lamarck), ed. 3, 3: 387 (1805)

Orache

Atriplex hastata L. var. salina (Wallr.) Gren., Fl. France [Grenier] 3: 12 (1856). Atriplex hastata sensu W.M.Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 575 (1967), non L. (1753).

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 139, fig. 27b (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 213 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 112 (2001); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 221 (2006).

Prostrate to ascending stout, monoecious, annual herb, up to 100 cm high but variable in size and habit, often much branched from the base; branches spreading or ascending, strongly ribbed and often reddish. Leaves petiolate; lower leaves opposite, green, 1.5–6(–8) cm long, 2–6 cm wide, triangular-hastate or sagittate, glabrescent to mealy, margins erose-dentate; upper leaves alternate, often narrowing, base cuneate. Inflorescence dense but9 of 29 slender axillary and terminal spikes or panicles, flowers sessile in small clusters, these often predominantly either staminate or pistillate, generally mixed. Female flowers all of one form. Bracteoles of the fruit 3–6 mm long, variable in size on the same plant, the larger bracteoles enclosing a seed, ovate or triangular, entire or toothed, smooth or tuberculate on the back, often turning black with age. Seed black, shining, 2–2.2 mm diam., lenticular. Flowering &/or fruiting most of year though mainly Feb.-May.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNM, TNS, TSE, TWE); also naturalized in WA, SA, NSW, Vic., New Zealand; native to Eurasia & N America. Common in coastal and estuarine situations in seasonal and permanent wet sites, often in saline soils, such as fringing saltmarsh.

3 * Atriplex patula L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1053 (1753)

Spear Orache, Common Orache

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 139, fig. 27c (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 213 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 221 (2006).

Erect annual, monoecious herb, to 80(–100) cm high; stems often much-branched, prominently ribbed. Leaves alternate, petiolate; lower leaves with lamina 5–9 cm long, 1.5–4 cm wide, rhombic to trullate, often with a pair of forwardly directed basal lobes, margins entire or coarsely toothed, glabrous or the abaxial surface mealy; upper leaves mostly entire, linear-lanceolate to elliptic, progressively smaller towards the end of the branches. Inflorescences spike-like, terminal and on short branches, male and female flowers intermixed. Female flowers all of one form. Bracteoles of the fruit 5–7 mm long, 3–4.5 mm wide, deltoid to narrow-trullate, margins above the lateral angler entire or shallowly lobed, dorsal surface mealy, smooth or with 2–4 protuberances. Seed black, shining smooth, lenticular or dark reddish-brown and flattened. Flowering &/or fruiting Jan.-May.

Tas. (TNS, TSE); also naturalized in NSW, Vic.; native to Eurasia, N Africa & widely naturalized including in New Zealand. An occasional weed on roadsides and in cultivated and waste areas, mostly coastal but up to c. 500 m alt. Rodway (1903) described two varieties under this species: viz. var. angustifolia Rodway and var. littoralis Rodway. Due to the poor nature of the descriptions and that no specimens were cited the names can not be applied (see Wilson 1984).

4 * ? Atriplex australasica Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum. 59 (1840)

Native Orache

Atriplex patula var. gunnii Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 385 (1938). Atriplex patula var. serratifolia Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 385 (1938).

Illustrations: Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 92, fig. 20a [fruit] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 139, fig. 27d (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 213 (2000).

Monoecious annual up to c. 1 m high, spreading to erect; stems and branches prominently ribbed. Leaves alternate, petiolate; lower leaves lanceolate to narrow-rhombic, 5–10 mm long, 1.5–4 mm wide, entire or with a pair of forwardly-directed basal lobes, glabrous or mealy beneath; upper leaves mostly linear to linear-lanceolate, progressively smaller. Inflorescence spike-like or narrowly paniculate, male and female flowers intermixed in small clusters. Bracteoles of the fruit 2–4 mm long and wide, deltoid, mealy at first, glabrous and shining in fruit, venation prominent, interveinal areas minutely reticulate in the lower half, dorsal area smooth or with 2 warty protuberances; smaller bracteoles with entire margins, seed within black, shining, c. 1.5 mm diam., lenticular; larger bracteoles with shallowly toothed margins, the seed within red-brown, c. 2 mm diam., flattened. Fruiting Feb.-Apr.(-May. in Vic.).

Tas. (FLI/TNS°, TSE); native to SA, NSW, Vic. An interstate native that may be sparingly naturalized or, if native, quite rare in Tasmania. Collected in 1833 in the Launceston area (see Wilson 1984) and since then again in the Derwent estuary (1998 & 2004). Interstate the species occurs on the margins of brackish lakes and in coastal and estuarine areas. Similar to and easily confused with A. patula.

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5 * Atriplex semibaccata R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 406 (1810)

Berry Saltbush, Creeping Saltbush

Atriplex denticulata Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 97 (1849). Atriplex flagellaris Wooton & Standl., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 119 (1913). Atriplex neurivalvis Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89(4): 619 (1930). Atriplex semibaccata var. appendiculata Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 411 (1938). Atriplex semibaccata var. gracilis Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 412 (1938).

Illustrations: Cunningham et al., Plants of Western New South Wales 242, fig. 44(25) (1982); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 139, fig. 27q (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 213 (2000); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 222 (2006).

Prostrate or decumbent, monoecious perennial herb, often forming mats to 1 m diam. and 40 cm high, with deep taproot; branches ribbed. Leaves thin, subsessile, 6–20(–25) mm long, 2–7(–15) mm wide, oblong-elliptic, margins sinuate or entire, adaxial surface glabrescent, abaxial surface scurfy, the venation finely reticulate. Male flowers in small clusters in the upper leaf axils. Female flowers monomorphic, in axillary clusters along the stem. Bracteoles of the fruit 2–5 mm long and wide, rhomboid, glabrous to sparsely mealy, entire or with 1–4 teeth on each margin in the free portion, veins prominent. Seed brown to dark brown, c. 1.5–2 mm diam., lenticular, flattened. Fruiting Sep.-Dec. (Victoria).

Tas. (TSE); native to WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic. Apparently introduced into Tasmania for grazing in saline areas (Walsh 1996). Known only from a single specimen collected from Triabunna in 1903. Intermediates between A. semibaccata and A. suberecta are known in Victoria (APNI).

6 Atriplex suberecta I.Verd., Bothalia 6(2): 418 (1954)

Lagoon Saltbush

Illustrations: Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 93, fig. 21a [fruit] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 139, fig. 27s (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 216 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 112 (2001); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 222 (2006).

Sprawling to erect monoecious annual or perennial herb up to 50 cm high; stems slightly ribbed to smooth. Leaves shortly petiolate; lamina 6–55 mm long, 5–25 mm wide, rhombic to ovate, coarsely sinuate-toothed, adaxial surface glabrescent, abaxial surface scurfy, venation finely reticulate. Male flowers in terminal and subterminal clusters. Female flowers monomorphic, in axillary clusters along the stem and a few at the base of the male clusters. Bracteoles of the fruit shortly stipitate, 2–5 mm long, 2–3 mm wide, rhomboid, convex, thickened, vesicular-papillose, fused in the lower half, margin 2–4 toothed in the free portion, apex acute. Seed red-brown, c. 1.5 mm wide, lenticular, flattened. Flowering &/or fruiting throughout the year

Tas. (FLI, TSE); also WA, SA, NSW, Vic. Found on the islands in the Furneaux Group and isolated collections made from roadsides in the Hobart area. Intermediates between A. semibaccata and A. suberecta are known in Victoria (APNI).

7 Atriplex paludosa R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 406 (1810), subsp. paludosa

Marsh Saltbush

Atriplex paludosa subsp. eupaludosa Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 402 (1938), nom. inval. Atriplex paludosa subsp. tridentata Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 405 (1938).

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 139, fig. 27x (1996); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 111 (2001).

Decumbent or sprawling, predominantly dioecious shrubs to 3 m high; stems slightly ribbed to smooth. Leaves narrowing to a short petiole, 1.2–4 cm long, 2–9 mm wide, narrow-elliptic, acute, entire or shallowly lobed, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface white-scaly. Male flowers in ± distant globular clusters forming spikes or panicles at the tips of the branches. Female flowers monomorphic, in clusters in upper leaf axils or in terminal spikes or panicles. Bracteoles of the fruit sessile or on a short stipe, up to 4(–10?) mm long, 3(–10) mm wide, triangular, acute, somewhat thick, scaly, lacking dorsal appendages. Mature seed not seen. Flowering &/or fruiting most of the year.

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Tas. (FLI, KIN, TSE, TWE); also SA, Vic. Locally common on the landward edge of saltmarshes in coastal and estuarine localities. The species has 4 subspecies; the other subspecies, subsp. baudinii (Moq.) Aellen, subsp. cordata (Benth.) Aellen (based on var. cordata Benth.; A. reniformis R.Br. is probably a synonym of this taxon) and subsp. moquiniana (Webb ex. Moq.) Parr-Sm., are confined to Western Australia and South Australia and have leaves that are grey-mealy on both surfaces.

8 Atriplex cinerea Poir., Encycl. (Lamarck) Suppl. 1: 471 (1811)

Grey Saltbush, Barilla, Coast Saltbush

Atriplex elaeagnoides Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum. 65 (1840); A. cinerea var. elaeagnoides (Moq.) Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 101 (1849). Neopreissia cinerea (Poir.) Ulbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2 [Engler & Prantl] 16c: 520, fig. 195 (1934). Atriplex halimus L. var. adscendens Nees, Pl. Preiss. 1(4): 633 (1845); Atriplex cinerea var. adscendens (Nees) H.Eichler, Suppl. Black’s Fl. S. Austral. ed. 2 108 (1965). Atriplex cinerea f. appendiculata Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 394 (1938). Atriplex cinerea var. globulosa Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 396 (1938). Atriplex cinerea var. palmata Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68(5): 394 (1938).

Illustrations: Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 93, fig. 21q [fruit] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 139, fig. 27y (1996); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria 55, fig. 193 (2000); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 211 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 111 (2001); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 37 (2002); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 93 (2004).

Spreading to erect dioecious or monoecious shrubs to 1.5 m high; stems with a silver-grey scurfy sheen, slightly ridged to smooth. Leaves petiolate; lamina 1.5–8 cm long, 8–25 mm wide, narrow-lanceolate, lanceolate, elliptical or trullate, margins entire or, in trullate leaves, with one or two short blunt lobes, both surfaces with a silver-grey scurfy sheen. Male flowers yellow or reddish-purple, in dense clusters 3–7 mm diam. in dense or interrupted spikes or panicles; in monoecious plants a few female flowers included in the male clusters and solitary or in pairs in leaf axils below the male inflorescences. Female plants: flowers sessile or subsessile in axillary clusters in compact leafy inflorescences at the tips of the branches. Bracteoles of the fruit to 10 mm long and wide, broadly rhomboid, subsessile or with a short broad stipe, free to the middle, the base swollen and hardened, mealy. Seed red-brown, c. 1.5–2 mm wide, lenticular, flattened. Flowering &/or fruiting most of the year.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNS, TSE, TWE); also WA, SA, NSW, Vic.; naturalized in New Zealand. A widespread coastal species that is found in coastal and estuarine communities on sand and/or shingle.

9 Atriplex billardierei (Moq.) Hook.f., Bot. Antarct. Voy. II. (Fl. Nov.-Zel.) 1: 215 (1853) [as A. billardieri]

Glistening Saltbush

Obione billardierei Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum., 72 (1840) [as O. billardieri]; Theleophyton billardierei (Moq.) Moq., Prodr. (Condolle) 13(2): 116 (1849) [as T. billardieri]. Atriplex chrystallina Hook.f., Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 6: 279 (1847); A. crystallina Hook. sensu L.Rodway, Tasman. Fl. 157 [in synonymy] (1903), orth. var.

Illustrations: Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 93, fig. 21u [fruit] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 139, fig. 27cc (1996); de Lange et. al., New Zealand J. Bot. 38: 560 - fig. 6 [habit], 561 - fig. 7 [leaves], fig. 8 [bracteole & seeds] (2000).

Slender, prostrate, short-lived, perennial, monoecious herb; branches, leaves, perianth of male flowers and bracts subtending female flowers ± densely covered in vesicular papillae; branches up to 50 cm long, pale brown or yellowish, glabrescent. Leaves alternate, sessile or subsessile, 5–13 mm long, 2–7 mm wide, ovate-elliptic, fairly fleshy, entire or obscurely lobed; the vesicular papillae collapsing with age, becoming scurfy, sand-grains often adhering to the surfaces. Male flowers c. 2.5 mm diam., solitary and axillary or in axillary clusters towards the apex of the branches; tepals oblong, obtuse; stamens 5, long-exserted; pistillode present. Female flowers shortly pedicellate, solitary or 2 or 3 together in lower leaf axils; bracteole united at the base, at maturity c. 5 mm long, c. 3 mm wide. Seed 2 mm diam. Flowering &/or fruiting throughout the year.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNM, TNS, TSE, TSR, TWE); also Vic. (extinct), New Zealand. A widespread though localised species found on sandy beaches near high water level in most coastal regions. The species appears to be extinct12 of 29 over a large part of its former range (eg. in Vic., South Island & Stewart Islands of New Zealand) and is extant only in Tasmania and the Chatham Island group (New Zealand) (de Lange et al. 2000). A detailed account of the species is given by de Lang et al. (2000). This species is unusual in the genus and is the sole representative of Atriplex subgenus Theleophyton (Moq.) Volkens (based on Theleophyton) (see Wilson 1984; de Lang et al. 2000).

6 CHENOPODIUM

Chenopodium L., Sp. Pl. 1: 218 (1753).

Synonymy: Blitum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 4 (1753).

Annual or perennial herbs or occasionally weak monoecious, shrubs; mealy due to sessile vesicular hairs or with glandular or septate hairs, sometimes glabrous; stems often ribbed, the furrows contrasting with the whitish ribs. Leaves mostly alternate above, basal leaves sometimes opposite, petiolate, flat, fairly thin, variable in shape, entire or dissected. Inflorescence of flower clusters in terminal spikes or panicles, ebracteate; all flowers bisexual, or the terminal flowers male or bisexual and lateral flowers female. Flowers small. Tepals (2)3–5, herbaceous, incurved, fused at base, ± accrescent. Stamens 1–5. Fruit with thin, membranous or rarely succulent pericarp. Seed horizontal or vertical, lenticular to sub-globular, usually falling enclosed in the perianth.

A genus of 80–100 species, found world-wide and often in coastal situations. In Australia there are 23 species (9 naturalized). There are a number of subgenera and sections recognised for Chenopodium: see Wilson (1984) for an outline for Australian taxa. A number of species traditionally placed in Chenopodium have been moved to Dysphania (see Masyakin & Clemants 2002, 2008; Shepherd & Wilson 2008, 2009).

Key references: Wilson (1983, 1984); Shepherd & Wilson (2008, 2009).

1.

Tepals glabrous; seed horizontal or erect

2

1:

Tepals mealy, at least when young; seed horizontal

3

2.

Inflorescence terminal or axillary, of clusters of flowers arranged in short simple or branched spikes

1 C. glaucum

2:

Inflorescence axillary, of clusters of flowers arranged in globular heads

C. capitatum +

3.

Plant with an unpleasant odour resembling rotting fish; tepals united, completely enclosing the seed

4 C. vulvaria

3:

Plant without an unpleasant odour; tepals not united or united to midway, not or enclosing fruit

4

4.

Seed prominently pitted in concentric lines; tepals opening widely in fruit, with a prominent midrib (Flinders Is.; presumed extinct)

5 C. erosum

4:

Seed smooth or minutely pitted; tepals enclosing the seed (widespread)

5

5.

Leaves light grey-green to yellowish; upper leaves narrow-lanceolate to elliptic, usually entire; seed margin rounded

2 C. album

5:

Leaves dull grey-green; upper leaves narrow-trullate, shallowly toothed; seed margin acute

3 C. murale

+ Chenopodium capitatum (L.) Asch. (Strawberry Bites, Strawberry Spinach, Indian Paint, Beetberry, Blite Goosefoot) is a native of North America and Europe, is grown for the edible fruit, and naturalized in New Zealand. It has been collected once in Hobart (2008) on a sealed driveway.

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1 Chenopodium glaucum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 220 (1753)

Oak-leaf Goosefoot, Pale Goosefoot, Glaucous Goosefoot

Chenopodium ambiguum R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 407 (1810); C. glaucum var. ambiguum (R.Br.) Hook.f., Bot. Antarct. Voy. III. (Fl. Tasman.) 1(4): 313 (1857); C. glaucum subsp. ambiguum (R.Br.) Murr. & Thell. ex Thell., Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 38: 196 (1912). Chenopodium littorale Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum. 24 (1840), nom. illeg., non (L.) Thunb. (1845). Chenopodium ambiguum var. majus Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 67 (1849). Chenopodium ambiguum var. minus Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 67 (1849); C. glaucum f. minus (Moq.) Aellen, Vierter Beitrag zur Adventiv-Flora von Solothurm und Umgeburg 16 (1931). Chenopodium glaucum var. littorale Rodway, Tasman. Fl. 155 (1903).

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 150, fig. 28a (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 218 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 133 (2001); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 224 (2006).

Prostrate or ascending annual; stems up to 1 m long, glabrous, ridged, green to reddish. Leaves fleshy; petiole to 5 cm long, flattened, on lower leaves as long as lamina; lamina up to 6 cm long, trullate, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, margins entire to sinuate-dentate or irregularly lobed, adaxial surface at first brown ± mealy, then glabrescent or glabrous and dark green, abaxial surface densely mealy, grey or white. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, of small dense clusters of flowers arranged in short simple or branched spikes. Flowers bisexual or female, c. 1 mm diam. Tepals (4)5 in terminal flowers, 3–4 in lateral flowers, free to the base, glabrous, obovate, cucullate, green to reddish, margins membranous. Stamens 1(–5) in terminal flowers, (0)1(–3) in lateral flowers. Fruit horizontal or erect, 1–1.5 mm diam., testa membranous, free. Seed horizontal or erect, dark red-brown to black, glossy, lenticular, margin rounded. Flowering &/or fruiting Dec.-May.

Tas. (FIN, KIN, TSE, TSR, TWE); also WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic; cosmopolitan. A widespread species found on sandy, shingle or rocky shores often in strand debris, edges of lagoons and inland saline lagoons.

2 * Chenopodium album L., Sp. Pl. 1: 219 (1753)

Fat Hen, White Goosefoot

Chenopodium lanceolatum R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 407 (1810), nom. illeg., non Willd. (1809); C. browneanum Roem. & Shult., Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 6: 275 (1820). Chenopodium album var. hastatum C.Klinger, Fl. Preuss. 2: 130 (1866); C. album subsp. hastatum (Klinger) Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. [Ascherson & Graebner] 5(1): 59 (1913). Chenopodium striatiforme Murr., Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 19: 50 (1901); C. album var. striatiforme (Murr.) Murr., Magyar. Bot. Lapok. 1: 364, fig. 23a-c (1902), nom. illeg. Chenopodium probstii Aellen, Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Solothurn 20: 80 (1928).

Illustrations: Cunningham et al., Plants of Western New South Wales 259 (1982); Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 136, fig. 23j-n (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 150, fig. 28c (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 220 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 133 (2001); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 223 (2006).

Erect annual to 1 m high, grey mealy; stems glabrous, ridged, furrows sometimes pink-tinged. Leaves: petioles shorter or longer than the lamina; lamina up to 4.5 cm long and 3 mm wide, rather thin, trullate to ovate-cuneate, margins entire or irregularly sinuate-dentate, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface sparingly to densely mealy; upper leaves narrow-lanceolate to elliptic, usually entire. Inflorescence paniculate, the glomerules densely clustered or ± distant on axillary branches or terminal. Flowers bisexual and female, c. 1.5 mm diam. Tepals 5, united in the lower half, mealy, keeled, margins hyaline. Stamens 5. Fruit enclosed within the perianth, 1.1–1.3 mm diam., pericarp minutely papillose, easily removed. Seed horizontal, black, glossy, margin rounded. Flowering &/or fruiting Nov.-May.

Tas. (BEL, FLI, TNM, TSE, TSR); also naturalized in all Australian states; native to Eurasia & N Africa, now a cosmopolitan weed. A common and widespread weed of roadsides, waste and cropping areas. A number of subspecific taxa are recognised for the species in Europe.

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3 * Chenopodium murale L., Sp. Pl. 1: 219 (1753)

Green Fat Hen, Nettle-leaf Goosefoot, Sowbane

Chenopodium biforme Nees, Pl. Preiss. 1(4): 636 (1845); C. murale var. biforme (Nees) Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 69 (1849). Chenopodium congestum Hook.f., Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 6: 280 (1847); Rhagodia congesta (Hook.f.) Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 51 (1849); R. baccata var. congesta (Hook.f.) Hook.f., Bot. Antarct. Voy. III. (Fl. Tasman.) 1(4): 312 (1857); R. billardierei R.Br. var. congesta (Hook.f.) Benth., Fl. Austral. 5: 153 (1870).

Illustrations: Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 572, fig. 121 (1967); Cunningham et al., Plants of Western New South Wales 261 (1982); Wilson, Nuytsia 4: 239, fig. 4b [seed] (1983); Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 149, fig. 25b [seed] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 150, fig. 28e (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 220 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 134 (2001); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 225 (2006).

Erect or rare prostrate annual to 1m high, branches often wide spreading; stems ridged, glabrous, green or often purplish-red. Leaves thin; petiole shorter or longer than the lamina; lamina 1–8 cm long, 0.5–5 cm wide, broadly triangular or trullate, base wide to narrow-cuneate, margins sinuate-toothed, the teeth antrorse, both surfaces sparsely mealy at first, adaxial surface glabrescent, abaxial surface with scattered vesicular hairs; upper leaves narrower. Inflorescence dense, terminal and axillary panicles. Flowers bisexual or female, c. 1.5 mm diam. Tepals 5, free for ± half their length, mealy at first, glabrescent, obovate, keeled, margins narrowly membranous. Stamens 0 or 5. Fruit 1.2–1.5 mm diam. Pericarp minutely papillose, adherent to the seed. Seed horizontal, blackish, lenticular, both faces deeply convex, margin keeled, falling enclosed in the perianth. Flowering & fruiting Oct.-Jun.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNS, TSE, TWE); also naturalized in WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic.; native to S Europe & Asia; cosmopolitan weed in temperate and warm temperate regions. A widespread weed of roadsides, waste areas, cropping areas, and domestic gardens.

4 * Chenopodium vulvaria L., Sp. Pl. 1: 220 (1753)

Stinking Goosefoot

Chenopodium olidum W.Curtis, Fl. Londin. (Curtis) 5: t. 20 (fasc. index) = t. 68 (vol. index) (1788), nom. illeg.

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 150, fig. 28d (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 219 (2000).

Prostrate or decumbent annual, with strong fishy smell; stems up to 30 cm long, pale green, ridged, mealy. Leaves grey-green; petiole shorter than the lamina; lamina 1–3 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm wide, ovate to broad-ovate or trullate, acute, margins entire, mealy on both surfaces at first, adaxial surface becoming glabrous. Inflorescence of dense clusters of families in axillary and terminal panicles up to 3 cm long. Flowers bisexual and female, c. 1.2 mm diam. Tepals (4)5, united below, densely mealy, keeled, completely enclosing the fruit. Stamens 5. Fruit lenticular, more deeply convex below than above, keel rounded; pericarp reticulate, easily separated from the seed. Seed horizontal, black, glossy. Flowering &/or fruiting Dec.-Apr.

Tas. (TNM, TSE, TSR); also naturalized in SA, NSW, Vic., New Zealand; native to N Hemisphere. An uncommon weed that has been found in areas around Ross, Lower Marshes and Recherche Bay. Usually found in domestic gardens or fallow paddocks, as well as agricultural areas interstate.

5 † Chenopodium erosum R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 407 (1810)

Illustrations: Wilson, Nuytsia 4: 239, fig. 4a [seed] (1983); Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 149, fig. 25a [seed] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 150, fig. 28f (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 219 (2000).

Erect annual to 1.5 m high, almost glabrous. Leaves; petiole to 4 cm long; lamina 4–15(–20) cm long, 0.5–6(–10) cm wide, papery, triangular to ovate, irregularly toothed, green, glabrous. Inflorescence axillary and terminal, a panicle. Flowers bisexual and female, c. 1 mm diam. Tepals 5, slightly mealy when young, glandular-hairy on margins, united only at the base. Stamens (0)5. Pericarp persistent. Seed horizontal, blackish, 1.25–1.5 mm diam., muricate in spiralling or concentric lines, falling free or united with the fruiting perianth. Flowering &/or fruiting Dec.-Feb. [in Vic.].

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Tas. (FLI°); also SA, Qld, NSW, Vic.; naturalized in New Zealand. Known, in Tasmania, only from Robert Brown’s collection of the type specimen from the Kent Group in 1804. Interstate, the species grows in damp, disturbed areas, eg. river banks, margins of forests etc (Wilson 1984). The above description was adapted from Wilson (1984), Walsh (1996) and Jacobs (2000) and based on non-Tasmanian material.

7 * ? DYSPHANIA

Dysphania R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 411 (1810)

Synonymy: Chenopodium section Orthosporum R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 407 (1810); Orthosporum (R.Br.) C.A.Mey ex T.Nees, Gen. Fl. Germ. 4: t. 57 (1835). Ambrina Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. (Spach) 5: 295 (1836), nom. illeg.; Chenopodium section Ambrina Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3(1): 51 (1880). Chenopodium section Dysphania (R.Br.) Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 63: 486 (1930). Chenopodium section Tetrasepala Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 63: 490 (1930); Dysphania section Tetrasepala (Aellen) A.J.Scott, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 100: 218 (1978). Dysphania section Caudatae A.J.Scott, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 100: 218 (1978).

Annual or perennial, glandular, aromatic monoecious herbs; stems prostrate to suberect, without fleshy articles. Leaves alternate, petiolate, simple, entire or dissected. Inflorescence axillary, a spike or panicle or clusters of flowers. Flowers minute, bisexual and/or unisexual, usually mixed within inflorescence. Tepals 1–5, free or shortly united, hooded and inflated towards apex in fruit. Stamens 1–2. Pericarp usually thinly membranous. Seed erect to horizontal, globular or laterally compressed.

Once considered to be an Australian genus of 10 species (see Wilson 1984), the genus is now considered to be cosmopolitan with c. 30 species. A number of species traditionally placed in Chenopodium have recently been moved to Dysphania (see Mosyakin & Clemants 2002, 2008; Shepherd & Wilson 2008, 2009). The recent nomenclatorial history of the genus is complicated (see Shepherd & Wilson 2009) though fortunately this does not affect Tasmanian taxa. The genus is probably not native to Tasmania as D. pumilio was first collected in 1912 and D. glomulifera in 2008.

Key references: Wilson (1983, 1984); Shepherd & Wilson (2008, 2009).

1.

Tepals 3; leaf margin smooth

1 D. glomulifera

1:

Tepals 5; leaf margin sinuate or bluntly lobed

2 D. pumilio

1 * ? Dysphania glomulifera (Nees) Paul G.Wilson, Nuytsia 4: 183 (1983), subsp. glomulifera

Pigweed

Atriplex glomulifera Nees, Pl. Preiss. 1(4): 634 (1845). Dysphania myriocephala Benth., Fl. Austral. 5: 165 (1870); Chenopodium myriocephalum (Benth.) Aellen, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 63: 488 (1930).

Illustrations: Cunningham et al., Plants of Western New South Wales 264 (1982), as D. littoralis; Wilson, Nuytsia 4: 241, fig. 6a [seed]; 242, fig. 7b, as D. littoralis [seed] (1983); Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 155, fig. 26a [seed] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 155, fig. 29a-c (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 223 (2000).

Somewhat fleshy annual aromatic herb; branches spreading, prostrate or weakly erect, to c. 20 cm long. Leaves shortly petiolate; lamina 2–12 mm long, 1.5–3 mm wide, spathulate to broadly elliptic, margin smooth, adaxial surface almost glabrous, abaxial surface sparsely pubescent with shortly stalked glandular hairs. Inflorescence an axillary sessile and crowded cluster of flowers; pedicels to 0.25 mm long; each cluster with 1-few bisexual flowers surrounded by mainly female flowers. Bisexual flowers: tepals 3, free or shortly united, obovate; stamens 1–2. Female flowers: tepals 1(2), filiform at base, expanded and spongy above, hooding the developing fruit, generally falling with seed attached. Seed dark red-brown, c. 0.5 mm long, erect, flattened-ovoid, with a narrow flange down one side, smooth or minutely verrucose. Flowering &/or fruiting usually Dec.-Apr. [for. Vic.]; in Tas. fertile collections made in Mar. & May.

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Tas. (KIN, TCH); native to all other Australian states. Recently collected on King Island (KIN) and Weasel Plains (TCH). Found growing on the margins of lakes, in areas once inundated with water, and swamps. The species is probably a recent introduction to Tasmania but it is not known if the introduction is natural or anthropomorphic. The above description is largely based on Wilson (1984) and Walsh (1996). There are two subspecies for D. glomulifera: the typical, and subsp. eremea Paul G.Wilson which is found over large parts of arid Australia.

2 * ? Dysphania pumilio (R.Br.) Mosyakin & Clemants, Ukrayin’k Bot. Zhurn. 59(4): 382 (2002)

Small Crumbweed, Rough-leaved Goosefoot, Clammy Goosefoot

Chenopodium pumilio R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 407 (1810); Blitum pumilio (R.Br.) Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2 (Steudel) 1: 210 (1840); Ambrina pumilio (R.Br.) Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum., 42 (1840). Blitum glandulosum Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 82 (1849); Chenopodium glandulosum (Moq.) F.Muell., Fragm. (Mueller) 7(52): 11 (1869); C. pumilio f. glandulosa (Moq.) Aellen, Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 44: 315 (1933). Chenopodium pumilio var. oblongifolium J.M.Black, Fl. S. Austral. [J.M.Black], ed. 2, 2: 289 (1948), nom. inval.

Illustrations (usually as C. pumilio): Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 148, fig. 24a-e (1984); Kirkpatrick et al., City Parks & Cemeteries: Tasmania’s Remnant Grasslands & Grassy Woodlands 115, pl. 25-3 (1988); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 150, fig. 28m (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 221 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 134 (2001); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 225 (2006).

Prostrate or decumbent, aromatic annual or short-lived perennial herb; branches to 50 cm long, green or reddish with ribs of contrasting colour, septate-hairy. Leaves: petiole to 12 mm long; lamina to 3 cm long, ovate to obovate, margins sinuate or bluntly lobed, adaxial surface with septate hairs and occasional sessile glands, abaxial surface glandular, septate-hairy on the veins. Flowers in axillary clusters, bisexual or female, 0.75–1 mm long on pedicels c. 0.25 mm long. Tepals 5, linear-lanceolate, united only at the base, with a few septate hairs down the middle and at the apex with sessile glands. Stamens 0–1. Fruit shed enclosed in the perianth; pericarp membranous. Seed dark brown to black, erect, lenticular, margin acute to rounded, pericarp adherent or easily detached. Flowering &/or fruiting Dec.-May.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNM, TSE); native to all Australian mainland states; widely naturalized, including in New Zealand. Widespread in the eastern part of the state in coastal and inland areas at lower altitudes including coastal sands, rocky islets, suburban footpaths and pasture paddocks. As the species was not recorded in earlier Tasmanian floras and with the first known Tasmanian collection being made in 1912 it is thought that it may be an introduction from interstate.

8 EINADIA

Einadia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 121 (1838).

Synonymy: Suaeda section Schanginia Volkens, Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] 1a: 80 (1893). Chenopodium section Polygonoidea Aellen, Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 69: 69 (1964).

Herbs or weakly woody subshrubs, monoecious; branches lax, scrambling, younger parts mealy. Leaves opposite, sub-opposite or alternate, petiolate, linear to broad hastate or sagittate, mealy when young. Inflorescence of flowers clustered in glomules arranged in spikes, racemes or panicles; terminal flowers usually bisexual, lateral flowers female. Tepals (4)5, fused at base. Stamens 1–3. Fruiting pericarp dry or becoming swollen and succulent, forming a red or orange berry (bacca). Seed horizontal, lenticular.

A genus of 6 species; 4 endemic to Australia, 2 to New Zealand.

Key references: Wilson (1983, 1984).

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1 Einadia nutans (R.Br.) A.J.Scott, Feddes Repert. 89: 3 (1978), subsp. nutans

Climbing Saltbush, Nodding Saltbush

Rhagodia nutans R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 408 (1810). Rhagodia chenopodioides Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum. 11 (1840). Chenopodium triangulare subsp. convolvulinum Murr., Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 16: 56 (1910); C. triangulare var. convolvulinium (Murr.) Maiden & Betche, Census N.S.W. Pl. 66 (1916). Rhagodia nutans var. fallacina Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89(4): 619 (1930).

Illustrations: Wilson, Nuytsia 4: 239, fig. 4e [seed] (1983); Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 149, fig. 25e [seed] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 155, fig. 29e (1996); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria 55, fig. 195 (2000); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 225 (2000); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 37 (2002); Gilfedder et al., The Nature of the Midlands 134 (2003); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 93 (2004).

Mound-forming or scrambling perennial herb, stems up to 60 cm long, sometimes woody at the base, much-branched and interwoven, ribbed, the younger parts mealy. Leaves opposite, sub-opposite or alternate; lamina to 3.2 cm long, to 1.2 cm wide, ovate-triangular, hastate or occasionally sagittate at the base; upper leaves lanceolate, base cuneate, apex acute or occasionally in young leaves obtuse; sparsely to moderately mealy when young, adaxial surface glabrescent. Inflorescences of clusters of flowers in short lateral or terminal spikes or racemose panicles. Terminal flowers bisexual, lateral flowers female. Perianth depressed, globular, segments (4)5, oblong, mealy at first, glabrescent, slightly accrescent. Stamens 1–2(3). Ovary ovoid, glabrous; stigmas 2–3. Fruit with perianth inflated, succulent, orange or red, depressed globular, c. 4 mm in diameter, exceeding the perianth. Seed black, lenticular, margin rounded, areolate-reticulate. Flowering &/or fruiting throughout the year.

Tas. (BEL, FLI, TNM, TSE, TSR); also WA, NT, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic.; naturalized in New Zealand. A widespread taxon in the eastern half of the island of Tasmania where found in dry, usually rocky and/or coastal situations. It appears to be absent from the islands of Bass Strait. Wilson (1983, 1984) states that this species is polymorphic with the main variants being described as 4 subspecies which are distinguished on leaf and fruit shape and seed size.

9 RHAGODIA

Rhagodia R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 408 (1810).

Sprawling perennial dioecious shrubs; young branches and leaves often with vesicular hairs producing a mealy or scurfy indumentums; stems woody. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, entire or lobed at the base. Inflorescence of flowers in clusters usually arranged in panicles or spike-like thyrses; bracts small or absent. Flowers small. Tepals 5, fused at base, usually enlarging and spreading in fruit. Male flowers: stamens 5, filaments ± flattened, united at the base into a thickened disc; pistillodes small. Female flowers: staminodes absent or present (when flowers terminal). Fruit a red or yellow berry, pericarp fleshy, depressed-globular. Seed single, horizontal, flattened.

An endemic Australian genus of 11 species.

Key references: Wilson (1983, 1984).

1 Rhagodia candolleana Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum. 10 (1840), subsp. candolleana

Coastal Saltbush, Seaberry Saltbush

Rhagodia baccata var. candolleana (Moq.) Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 50 (1849). Rhagodia baccata var. parvifolia Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 50 (1849). Chenopodium furfuraceum Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 64 (1849). Rhagodia billardierei sensu G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 5: 152 (1870), p.p.; L.Rodway, Tasman. Fl. 154 (1903), non R.Br. (1810). Rhagodia baccata sensu W.M.Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 570 (1967), non (Labill.) Moq. (1849).

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Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 155, fig. 29h-i (1996); Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria 56, fig. 201 (2000); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 237 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 215 (2001); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 38 (2002); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 94 (2004).

Prostrate to erect shrub to 2(–3) m high; young stems and branches mealy, stems glabrescent, ribbed, sometimes reddish. Leaves alternate to subopposite; lamina 5–30 mm long, thin to somewhat fleshy, elliptic, ovate-lanceolate or trullate with a single short blunt lobe at each angle, apex obtuse, margins often narrowly recurved, adaxial surface sparingly vesicular to glabrous, abaxial surface mealy at first, becoming silver-scurfy as the vesicles collapse. Panicles terminal, axis and branches mealy, branches spreading at an angle of c. 45° from the axis. Tepals mealy abaxially, midrib thickened. Male flowers c. 4.5 mm in diam.; filaments and disc with capitate hairs; pistillode with short erect stigmas. Female flowers c. 2 mm diam.; staminodes membranous; stigmas spreading. Fruit: developing fruit papillose; mature fruit dark red to purple, fleshy, c. 4.5 mm diam. Flowering all year; fruiting mainly Dec.-Mar.

Tas. (BEN, FLI, KIN, TNM, TNS, TSE, TSR, TWE); also WA, SA, NSW, Vic. Found in all coastal regions (apart from Macquarie Is.) in coastal shrubberies and herbfields, on dunes and rocky outcrops. Insect infestations in male flowers may result in the development of a thickened pedicel and the enlargement of the pistillode, making the plant appear monoecious. Rhagodia candolleana subsp. argentea Paul G.Wilson occurs in north-western South Australia and can be distinguished from the typical variety by the hastate leaves with a silvery sheen on the abaxial surface.

10 * BASSIA

Bassia All., Mélanges Philos. Math. Soc. Roy. Turin 3: 177, t. 4, fig. 2 (1766).

Synonymy: Kochia Roth, J. Bot. (Schrader) 1: 307, t. 2 (1801). [For full list see Wilson (1984), APC, APNI].

Annual or perennial herbs or small shrubs; branches erect, without fleshy articles, villous or cottony-hairy, often becoming glabrous with age. Leaves alternate, sessile, linear or elliptical, flat or cylindrical, fleshy, entire. Inflorescence spicate, made of clustered flowers in axils along the stems and branches, or flowers solitary. Flowers small, bisexual or female, sessile. Tepals 5, basally fused; perianth accrescent and closing over the dry fruit, a horizontal wing or spine developing on the dorsal area of each tepal. Stamens 5. Pericarp membranous. Seed horizontal.

A genus of c. 30 species found in the Northern Hemisphere; 2 species naturalized in Australia.

1 * Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J.Scott, Feddes Repert. 89: 108 (1978)

Summer Cypress, Burning Bush, Kochia

Chenopodium scoparia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 221 (1753); Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad., Neues J. Bot. 3(3–4): 85 (1809).

Illustration: Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 222 (2006).

Annual herb; stems much-branched, to 120 cm high, young stems and branches villous. Leaves to 3.5(–7?) cm long, elliptical or linear-elliptical, adaxial surface glabrous or subglabrous, abaxial surface moderately to sparingly hairy, margins long-ciliate. Flowers solitary, ± distant in the lower half of the axillary branches, densely clustered above, each flower subtended by a leaf-like bract, these becoming progressively smaller towards the tips of the branches, a dense fringe of long woolly hairs between the bract and the perianth. Tepal lobes ovate, 1-veined, margins ciliate, wings triangular, up to 0.5 mm long. Mature fruit 1.5–2 mm diam., excluding the wings. Seed blackish, 1.5–2 mm diam. Flowering &/or fruiting Feb.-Apr.

Tas. (TNS); also naturalized in WA, SA, ?Vic. Recently recorded (1995–1998) in the north near Devonport and Deloraine. At Deloraine it was a weed in carrot crops, apparently as a contaminant of seed from America. In Western Australia it was introduced as a forage species but, proving aggressive, has since been proclaimed a Noxious Weed.

11 THRELKELDIA

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Threlkedia R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 409 (1810).

Weakly woody short-lived perennials, monoecious; branchlets prostrate to procumbent, without fleshy articles, glabrous except for short axillary pubescence. Leaves alternate, sessile, fleshy, often crowded, linear to terete, glabrous, somewhat fleshy. Flowers axillary, solitary, bisexual. Tepals 3–5, fused at base; tube fleshy, glabrous ovoid or cylindrical, hardening at the fruiting stage; lobes glabrous or minutely pubescent along margins. Stamens 3–5. Fruiting perianth tubular or urceolate, at least partially woody, lacking appendages; pericarp membranous below, thickened at apex. Seed enclosed in the hardened perianth tube, horizontal to vertical.

An endemic Australian genus of 2 species: one, T. diffusa, widespread across southern Australia, and the other T. inchoate (J.M.Black) J.M.Black of Central Australia. Threlkeldia is closely related to Enchylaena R.Br., Maireana Moq., Neobassia A.J.Scott, Osteocarpum F.Muell. and Sclerolaena R.Br. (all endemic to Australia; see Wilson 1984). Cabrera et al. (2009) argues these genera should be combined though they presented no formal taxonomic work.

Key reference: Wilson (1984).

1 Threlkeldia diffusa R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 410 (1810)

Coast Bonefruit

Threlkeldia diffusa var. latifolia Benth., Fl. Austral. 5: 197 (1870). Threlkeldia drupata Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 35: 186, fig. 21d-f (1904).

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 173, fig. 31c (1996); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 239 (2001).

Prostrate to decumbent perennial, glabrous except for a few caducous hairs in the leaf axils and at the basal margins of young leaves. Stems up to 40 cm long, ridged, green or occasionally reddish. Leaves alternate, 5–20 mm long, linear to oblanceolate, fleshy, apex acute, often recurved. Flowers c. 1.5 mm long at anthesis. Tepals 3–5, basal tube c. 1 mm long, lobes 3–5, c. 0.5 mm long, membranous, triangular, margins densely ciliate. Stamens 3; anthers c. 0.5 mm long. Styles c. 1mm long. Fruiting perianth 2.5–3.5 mm long, ovate to dolioform, thinly fleshy and often reddish externally, woody within, the apex of the tube extending beyond the lobes as a shallow 2–4 lobed rim. Seed enclosed in the lower half of the hardened perianth, obliquely erect. Flowering &/or fruiting most of the year

Tas. (FLI); also WA, SA, Vic. Known from many of the islands of eastern Bass Strait including those of the Clark Island, Hogan Island, Kent Island and Furneaux Groups. A poorly collected species on the island of Tasmania: recorded in the 19th Century from near George Town and in 2001 from Five Mile Bluff (NE of George Town). Found in sandy and rocky shoreline communities.

12 * BETA

Beta L., Sp. Pl. 1: 222 (1753).

Annual to perennial herbs, glabrous, monoecious; stems erect, without fleshy articles. Leaves petiolate, flat, entire, not spine tipped. Flowers bisexual, solitary or in small cymes arranged in branched spike like inflorescences, each flower or cluster subtended by a bract and 2 bracteoles. Tepals 5, shortly tubular at base, thickened and connate with ovary in lower part. Stamens 5. Fruits 1-seeded, often in glomerules, adhering by the hardened and swollen receptacles and tepals. Seed horizontal.

A genus of about 7 species of Eurasia; 1 naturalized in Australia.

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1 * Beta vulgaris L., Sp. Pl. 1: 222 (1753), subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang., Fl. Advent. Montpellier 189 (1912)

Wild Beet

Beta maritima L., Sp. Pl. edn 2, 1: 322 (1762); B. vulgaris var. maritima (L.) Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 56 (1849). Beta vulgaris var. perennis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 222 (1735).

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 187, fig. 33a-b (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 216 (2000).

Annual to perennial herb, root not conspicuously swollen; stem decumbent to erect, up to 80 cm high. Basal leaves up to 20 cm long, petiole ± as long as the blade; blade ovate to rhomboid, somewhat fleshy, margins undulate; cauline leaves progressively smaller and becoming sessile or subsessile. Flower solitary or in clusters of 2–4. Tepal lobes up to 2.5 mm long, uncurved strongly keeled above, swollen and corky at the base. Fruits fused at the base, the cluster falling together. Flowering &/or fruiting most of the year

Tas. (FLI?°, TSE); also naturalized in SA, NSW, Vic.; native to Eurasia. An occasional weed near the Derwent Estuary. The taxon has apparently also been collected from Flinders Island (see AVH). The species is usually found in disturbed areas near the shoreline. The various cultivated forms of B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris include Silver Beet, Beetroot, Sugar Beet and Fodder Beets. This subspecies is distinguished from B. vulgaris subsp. maritima by having a swollen taproot and up to eight flowers per cluster in the inflorescence.

13 SARCOCORNIA

Sarcocornia A.J.Scott, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 75: 366 (1978).

Low shrubs, undershrubs or perennials, monoecious or dioecious; glabrous, succulent, apparently leafless; young stems fleshy, appearing articulated with cylindrical segments (articles), the apex of each article cup-shaped or shortly 2- lobed. Inflorescence terminal, spike-like, the flowers in cymules of 3–12 in the axils of opposite fleshy bracts, the pairs of cymules forming false whorls around the axis. Perianth succulent, 3–4-lobed the two lateral lobes vertical, the adaxial lobe small, semi circular and occasionally a small abaxial lobe, the lobes fused at anthesis; stamens and stigma exserted through a vertical slit. Stamens 2. Fruiting perianth spongy, usually falling entire but occasionally splitting vertically, releasing the seed. Seed ovate to orbicular, flattened.

A cosmopolitan genus of 16 species with 3 native to Australia. The third Australian species, S. globosa Paul G.Wilson, is restricted to the margins of salt lakes in inland areas of south-western Western Australia.

Key references: Wilson (1980, 1984).

1.

Sterile branches green or red; fruiting spikes 4–6 mm diam.; seed with slender, spreading or short, curved hairs (estuarine salt flats & rocky shores)

1 S. quinqueflora

1:

Sterile branches usually glaucous; fruiting spikes 5–8 mm diam.; seed with papillose hairs (estuarine salt flats)

2 S. blackiana

1 Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex. Ung.-Sternb) A.J.Scott, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 75: 368 (1977)

Beaded Glasswort, Glasswort, Marsh Samphire

Salicornia quinqueflora Bunge ex. Ung.-Sternb., Vers. Syst. Salicorn. 59 (1866). Salicornia australis Sol. ex F.Muell., Fragm. (Mueller) 7(52): 15 (1869). Salicornia australis Sol. ex. Benth., Fl. Austral. 5: 205 (1870), nom. illeg., non F.Muell. (1869). Salicornia australis Sol. ex. Rodway, Tasman. Fl. 158 (1903), nom. illeg., non F.Muell. (1869). Arthrocnemum heptiflorum Moss., J. South African Bot. 20: 18 (1954), nom., illeg., non Moss ex Fourc. (1941). Salicornia indica sensu J.D.Hooker, Bot. Antarct. Voy. III. (Fl. Tasman.) 2(11): xlvi, 1(4): 317 (1859), non Willd. (1799).

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Illustration: Curtis, The Student’s Flora of Tasmania 3: 579 (1967), as Salicornia quinqueflora; Corrick & Fuhrer, Wildflowers of Victoria 57, fig. 203 (2000); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 38 (2002); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 94 (2004).

Perennial with decumbent stems 20–40 cm long, often stoloniferous, rooting at nodes, bearing numerous erect or ascending branches occasionally up to 30 cm high; articles green to red, cylindrical to narrow-bovid, 5–10(–20) mm long, obscurely 2-keeled towards the apex which is cup-shaped or 2-lobed. Flowering spikes terminal, 1–5 cm long, 4–6 mm diam. Flowers (3–)5(–9) in a row on each side of a segment. Fruiting perianth spongy, flattened at the apex, usually falling entire, occasionally splitting vertically to release the seed. Seed ovate in outline, some what flattened, covered with short curved or slender spreading hairs, the hairs in both cases more prominent at the margin. Flowering &/or fruiting Nov–May.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNS, TSE, TSR, TWE); also WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic., New Zealand, New Caledonia. A common species in saltmarshes and on coastal rock platforms and in rock crevices along all Tasmanian coasts (except Macquarie Is.). Sarcocornia quinqueflora is an important food plant of the rare Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) (OBPRT 1998). Often flower-like, stem galls are found on plants which contain larvae of gall midges (Veenstra-Quah et al. 2007).

There are 2 subspecies. Many specimens of S. quinqueflora, lacking fruit, cannot be placed in a subspecies and the records of distribution of the subspecies are subsequently incomplete.

1.

Plants usually decumbent, rooting at the nodes; stem articles mostly > 2 mm diam.; seed with slender spreading hairs

1a subsp. quinqueflora

1:

Plants tufted; stem articles < 2 mm diam.; seed with short acute curved hairs

1b subsp. tasmanica

1a Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex. Ung.-Sternb) A.J.Scott subsp. quinqueflora

Beaded Glasswort, Glasswort, Marsh Samphire

Illustrations: Wilson, Nuytsia 3: 136–137, figs 68–69 [seed] (1980); Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 279, fig. 49a-b; 285, fig. 50a [seed] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 187, fig. 33c-e (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 239 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 220 (2001); Simmons et al., A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania, 4th edn, 99 (2008).

Description as per key.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNS, TSE, TSR, TWE); also WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic., New Zealand, New Caledonia. A common coastal taxon found in moderately saline and frequently flooded communities, usually in estuaries.

1b Sarcocornia quinqueflora subsp. tasmanica Paul G.Wilson, Nuytsia 3: 74 (1980)
Beaded Glasswort, Glasswort, Marsh Samphire

Illustrations: Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 279, fig. 49c [seed] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 187, fig. 33f (1996); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 220 (2001).

Description as per key.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TSE, TSR, TWE); also Vic. Scattered in coastal areas on rocky substrates that are flooded by the sea.

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2 Sarcocornia blackiana (Ulbr.) A.J.Scott, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 75: 369 (1978)

Thick-head Glasswort, Glasswort, Marsh Samphire

Salicornia blackiana Ulbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 [Engler & Prantl.] 16c: 552 (1934). Salicornia pachystachya J.M.Black, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 45: 8, t. 11 (1921), nom illeg., non Ung.-Sternb. (1866); Arthrocnemum heptiflorum Moss ex Fourc., Mem. Bot. Surv. South Africa 20: 19, 115 (1941), nom. illeg., nom. superfl.

Illustrations: Wilson, Nuytsia 3: 138–139, figs 70–71 [seed] (1980); Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 237, fig. 45; 279, fig. 49d-e; 285, fig. 50b [seed] (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 187, fig. 33g (1996); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 38 (2002).

Perennial with decumbent stems, rooting at the nodes, producing numerous erect or ascending branches 8–20 cm high, usually somewhat glaucous, fleshy; articles 5–15(–20) mm long, cylindrical or narrow-obconical, sometimes glaucous, the apex forming a 2-lobed cup, the lobes shallowly keeled. Fruiting spikes 2–4.5 cm long, 5–8 mm diam., flowers 5–9 on each side of the segment, forming a false whorl, sometimes an additional floret present below the central floret. Fruiting perianth spongy, flattened at the apex, falling entire. Seed ovate in outline, somewhat flattened covered in short papillae. Flowering &/or fruiting mainly Nov.-May.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNS, TSE, TWE); also WA, SA, Vic. Scattered around Tasmania and found in coastal and estuarine saltmarshes, often growing with S. quinqueflora.

14 TECTICORNIA

Tecticornia Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3(1): 65 (1880).

Synonymy: Pachycornia Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3(1): 65 (1880). Arthrocnemum section Trachysperma J.M.Black, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 43: 357 (1919). Arthrocnemum section Leiosperma J.M.Black, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 43: 358 (1919). Arthrocnemum subgenus Angianthemum Moss, J. S. African Bot. 20: 5 (1954). Sclerostegia Paul G.Wilson, Nuytsia 3(1): 17 (1980). Tegicornia Paul G.Wilson, Nuytsia 3(1): 25 (1980). Halosarcia Paul G.Wilson, Nuytsia 3(1): 28 (1980).

Erect or spreading annual or perennial shrubs or herbs, monoecious or dioecious (not in Tas.), much-branched, glabrous; the stems during their first year fleshy, segmented and appearing leafless, the segments (articles) cylindrical or spherical, widening above to a shallow 2-lobed cup, the fleshy outer portion eventually shrivelling and deciduous. Inflorescence of terminal or lateral spike-like thyrse comprising (1–)3(–5)-flowered cymules immersed in the apex of the fleshy, opposite, usually united bracts. Flowers sessile; andromonoecious with central flower bisexual and lateral flowers male, or plant dioecious (not in Tas.). Perianth with fused segments, at first thin, in fruit membranous, succulent or shrivelled. Stamens 1. Fruit with pericarp crustaceous to woody. Seed ovoid.

A genus of about 33 species, all but two endemic to Australia. Shepherd and Wilson (2007) present a cladistic analysis based on morphological and molecular data that show that five basically Australian genera, Halosarcia, Pachycornia, Sclerostegia, Tecticornia and Tegicornia, form a closely related natural group, but with all the smaller genera nested within a paraphyletic Halosarcia. Tecticornia and Pachycornia are the oldest available names in this group (published on the same page). Shepherd and Wilson (2007), as Pachycornia had a number of unusual features, synonymised it and the other three genera under Tecticornia.

Key references: Wilson (1980, 1984); Shepherd & Wilson (2007).

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1 Tecticornia arbuscula (R.Br.) K.A.Sheph. & Paul G.Wilson, Austral. Syst. Bot. 20: 325 (2007)

Shrubby Glasswort

Salicornia arbuscula R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 411 (1810); Arthrocnemum arbusculum (R.Br.) Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum. 113 (1840); Halocnemum arbuscula (R.Br.) F.M.Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl. 409 (1883); Pachycornia arbuscula (R.Br.) A.J.Scott, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 75: 369 (1978); Sclerostegia arbuscula (R.Br.) Paul G.Wilson, Nuytsia 3(1): 20 (1980).

Illustrations (usually as Sclerostegia arbuscula): Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 198, fig. 35a-b (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 246 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 222 (2001); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 39 (2002); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 95 (2004).

Erect bushy shrub 20–150 cm high; older stems slender, young parts green, fleshy; articles 3–8 mm long, 3–4 mm diam. Flowering branches terminal and on short spreading lateral branches, each with 2–7 short fleshy segments; bracts opposite, united. Central bisexual flower larger than the lateral male flowers which are often not produced. Stamen 1 in all flowers. Fruit with perianth becoming succulent at first, shrivelling later, triangular in outline, the pericarp hard, exserted beyond the bract as a persistent beak. Seed c. 1.5 mm long, minutely wrinkled. Flowering &/or fruiting (Jul.-)Nov.-Feb.

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNS, TSE, TSR); also WA, SA, NSW, Vic. A common species of coastal and estuarine saltmarshes and mudflats.

15 SUAEDA

Suaeda Forssk. ex Scop., Intr. Hist. Nat. 333 (1977), nom. cons.

Synonymy: Suaeda section Chenopodina Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum. 124 (1840); Chenopodina (Moq.) Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 159 (1849), nom. illeg. Lerchia Haller ex Zinn, Cat. Pl. Hort. Gott. 30 (1757), nom. rej.

Annuals or short-lived weak perennials, herbs or shrubs, monoecious; stems without fleshy articles, glabrous or the young shoots sparsely hairy. Leaves usually alternate, occasionally subopposite, sessile, linear to narrow-elliptic or oblanceolate, flat or fleshy. Flowers solitary or in axillary clusters of 2–5, subtended by 2–3 small membranous bracteoles. Tepals 5, free or united at the base, +/- succulent, lacking transverse wing. Stamens 5, hypogynous or attached to the short perianth tube. Pericarp membranous or slightly succulent. Seed lenticular, erect or horizontal.

A genus of c. 140 species found mostly in the Northern Hemisphere; 6 species (4 naturalized, 2 endemic) in Australia.

Key reference: (Wilson 1984).

1.

Plants annual, tinged pink or red, glaucous; seed slightly keeled around perimeter, with testa minutely reticulate-patterned

1 S. maritima

1:

Plants perennial (under normal conditions), usually green; seed lenticular, not keeled around perimeter, testa smooth

2 S. australis

1 * Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort., Fl. Belg. 22 (1827), var. maritima

Chenopdium maritimum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 221 (1753); Chenopodina maritima (L.) Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 161 (1849). ?Suaeda sp. A sensu S.W.L.Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1: 247 (1990).

Illustrations: Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 198, fig. 35k-l (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 248 (2000) [as Suaeda sp. A]; Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 228 (2006).

Erect or ascending annual to 1 m high, branched from near base, glabrous, dull grey-green to strongly pink-tinged. 24 of 29Leaves 6–15 mm long, c. 1 mm wide, linear to narrowly elliptic, acute to obtuse. Flowers all bisexual or some female, in axillary clusters. Perianth lobed from base; fruiting perianth not inflated, but sometimes prominently keeled dorsally and/or with a narrow basal lobe, depressed-globular, to c. 2.5 mm diam. Seed horizontal, dark reddish-brown, 1.5–2 mm diam., lenticular with perimeter acute, slightly keeled, minutely reticulate-patterned. Flowering &/or fruiting Dec.-Apr.

Tas. (FLI); also naturalized in NSW, Vic.; native to Europe. Rare weed found in saltmarshes and wetlands in the Furneaux Group and north-eastern Tasmania. In Europe S. maritima is a widespread and variable species and a number of varieties are recognised.

2 Suaeda australis (R.Br.) Moq., Ann. Sci. Nat. ser 1, 23:318 (1831)

Southern Sea-blite, Austral Sea-blite, Sea-blite

Chenopodium australe R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 407 (1810); Schoberia australis (R.Br.) Steud., Nom. Bot. 2nd ed., 2: 532 (1841); Chenopodina australis (R.Br.) Moq., Prodr. (Candolle) 13(2): 78, 163 (1849); Lerchea maritima var. australis (R.Br.) Kuntze., Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 549 (1891); Suaeda maritima var. australis (R.Br.) Domin., Biblioth. Bot. 89: 72 (1921). Chenopodium insulare J.M.Black, Trans. Roy. Soc. South Australia 69: 309 (1945). Suaeda maritima sensu J.D.Hooker, Bot. Antarct. Voy. III. (Fl. Tasman.) 1: 316 (1857); G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 5: 206 (1870); L.Rodway, Tasman. Fl. 157 (1903), non (L.) Dumort. (1827).

Illustrations: Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 311, fig. 55a-g (1984); Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 198, fig. 35f-h; oppo. 341, pl. 6a–c (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 247 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 235 (2001); Woolmore et al., King Island Flora 39 (2002); Whiting et al., Tasmania’s Natural Flora 95 (2004); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 228 (2006).

Erect or rounded perennial, to c. 80 cm high, very variable (some depauperate plants appearing annual), glabrous, woody at the base, much branched; stems spreading or erect, branches bright green, yellowish or often reddish. Leaves 6–20(–50) mm long, 1–3.5 mm wide, fleshy, plano-convex, linear to elliptical or oblanceolate, acute or obtuse, half-spreading to erect and somewhat incurved; floral leaves shorter, oblanceolate to spathulate, obtuse. Flowers all bisexual, solitary or in axillary clusters of 3–5 towards the ends of the branches. Perianth +/- globular, the segments somewhat fleshy, green with narrow membranous margins, c. 2 mm diam. in fruit. Seed horizontal, dark brown to black, shining, c. 1.5 mm diam., lenticular, smooth or minutely reticulate near margin, enclosed in the dried and wrinkled perianth. Flowering &/or fruiting most of the year

Tas. (FLI, KIN, TNS, TSE, TSR, TWE); WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic. A widespread species and a common component of saltmarsh, shoreline and estuarine communities.

16 * SALSOLA

Salsola L., Sp. Pl. 1: 222 (1753).

Annual erect herbs or short-lived shrubs, monoecious; glabrous or pubescent; stems without fleshy articles. Leaves alternate or lower leaves opposite, sessile, narrow-triangular to subterete, entire, spine-tipped. Flowers axillary, usually solitary, bisexual; bracteoles 2, exceeding the perianth. Tepals 5, free or fused at the base, membranous at first, becoming hardened and in fruit usually developing a transverse wing on the dorsal face. Stamens 5; filaments free. Pericarp membranous or cartilaginous. Fruit a utricle. Seed orbicular, usually horizontal.

A genus of c. 100 species (depending on account) in coastal and saline areas of Eurasia and Africa; 1 probably naturalized species in Australia.

Key reference: Wilson (1984).

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1 * Salsola tragus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 222 (1753)

Buckbush, Soft Buckbush, Prickly Saltwort, Roly-poly

Salsola australis R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 411 (1810). Salsola macrophylla R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 411 (1810). Salsola kali subsp. tragus (L.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 3: 631 (1881). Salsola kali sensu G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 5: 207 (1870); P.G.Wilson, Fl. Australia 4: 314 (1984); N.G.Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 198 (1996), non L. (1753).

Illustrations (usually as S. kali): Walsh, Fl. Victoria 3: 198, fig. 35m-o (1996); Jacobs, Fl. New South Wales 1, rev. edn: 238 (2000); Harris et al., One Hundred Islands: the Flora of the Outer Furneaux 219 (2001); Richardson et al., Weeds of the South-East, an Identification Guide for Australia 226 (2006).

Annual herb to 50 cm high; stems prominently ridged, yellowish green; young stems and base of young leaves with deciduous crisped hairs. Leaves 0.5–2(–4) cm long, narrow triangular to subterete, expanded and +/- stem clasping below, apex spine-tipped. Floral leaves similar to stem leaves but shorter and broader at the base; bracteoles similar to floral leaves but smaller, exceeding the perianth. Perianth 2.5–3 mm long, ovate-acuminate, membranous at first, hardening in fruit, lacking a transverse wing. Staminal filaments c. 4 mm long, expanded below; anther c. 1 mm long. Style branches c. 2 mm long. Seed c. 2.5 mm diam. Flowering &/or fruiting May.-Oct. (Vic.), Feb. (Tas. collections).

Tas. (FLI, KIN); naturalized in all Australian states; native to Eurasia and Africa. Known from few collections from islands of Bass Strait: Hogan and West Sister Islands in the east, and also, recently, from King Island. In Tasmania found in near coastal communities though in the remainder of Australia widespread across the continent in arid, semi-arid and slightly saline areas. The species and genus in Australia is highly variable and there has been great uncertainty on both the application of names and on how many taxa are present (see APC; Wilson 1984; Walsh 1996; Borger et al. 2008).

REFERENCES

ALA (Atlas of Living Australia) www.ala.org.au

APC (Australian Plant Census) www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html

APG [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group] (1998) An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85 531–553.

APG II (2003) An update of the angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141 399–436.

APG III (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 105–121.

APNI (Australian Plant Name Index) www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni

AVH (Australia’s Virtual Herbarium) (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria) www.rbg.vic.gov.au/avh/

Borger CPD, Yan G, Scott JK, Walsh MJ, Powles SB (2008) Salsola tragus or S. australis (Chenopodiaceae) in Australia – untangling taxonomic confusion through molecular and cytological analyses. Australian Journal of Botany 56 600–608.

Cabrera JF, Jacobs SWL, Kadereit G (2009) Phylogeny of the Australian Camphorosmeae (Chenopodiaceae) and the taxonomic significance of the fruiting perianth. International Journal of Plant Science 170 505–521.

Cuénoud P, Savolainen V, Chatrou LW, Grayer R, Chase MW (2002) Molecular phylogenetics of Caryophyllales based on nuclear 18S rDNA and plastid rbcL, atpB, and matK DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 89 132–144.

de Lange PJ, Norton DA, Crowcroft GM (2000) Taxonomy, ecology, and conservation of Atriplex billardierei and A. hollowayi sp. nov. (Chenopodiaceae) in Australasia. New Zealand Journal of Botany 38 551–567.

Downie SR, Katz-Downie DS, Cho K-Y (1997) Relationships in the Caryophyllales as suggested by phylogenetic analyses of partial chloroplast DNA ORF 2280 homolog sequences. American Journal of Botany 84 253–273.

Haston E, Richardson JE, Stevens PF, Chase MW, Harris DJ (2007) A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families. Taxon 56 7–12.

IPNI (International Plant Name Index) www.ipni.org/index.html or www.us.ipni.org/index.html

Jacobs SWL (2000) Chenopodiaceae. Flora of New South Wales 1, rev. edn, 206–248.

Kadereit G, Borsch T, Weising K, Freitag H (2003) Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. International Journal of Plant Science 164 959–986.

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Kühn U, Bittrich, V, Carolin R, Freitag H, Hedge IC, Uotila P, Wilson PG (1993) Chenopodiaceae. In K Kubitzki, JG Rohwer, V Bittrich (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Vol. II, Flowering Plants - Dicotyledons - Magnoliid, Hammamelid and Caryophyllid Families. pp. 253–281. (Springer-Verlag; Berlin)

Mosyakin SL, Clemants SE (2002) New nomenclatural combinations in Dysphania R.Br. (Chenopodiaceae): taxa occurring in North America. Ukrayins’kyi Botanicnyi Zhurnal 59 380–385.

Mosyakin SL, Clemants SE (2008) Further transfers of glandular-pubescent species from Chenopodium subg. Ambrosia to Dysphania (Chenopodiaceae). Journal of the Botanic Research Institute of Texas 2 425–431.

NVA (Natural Values Atlas) (Department of Primary Industries and Water: Hobart) www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/LJEM-6TV6TV?open

OBPRT (1998) Orange-bellied parrot recovery plan 1998–2002. Report prepared by the Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team (OBPRT), Parks & Wildlife Service, Tasmania for the Department of Environment & Heritage, Australia.

Palmer J (2009) A conspectus of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Australia. Nuytsia 19 107–128.

Rodway L (1903) The Tasmanian Flora. (Government Printer: Hobart).

Shepherd KA (2008) Consensus or complacency? A discussion of the proposed new collection sequence at the WA Herbarium. Australian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter 135 5–8.

Shepherd KA, Wilson PG (2007) Incorporation of the Australian genera Halosarcia, Pachycornia, Sclerostegia and Tegicornia into Tecticornia (Salicornioideae, Chenopodiaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 20 319–331.

Shepherd KA, Wilson PG (2008) New combinations in the genus Dysphania (Chenopodiaceae). Nuytsia 18 267–272.

Shepherd KA, Wilson PG (2009) Clarification of recent combinations in the genus Dysphania (Chenopodiaceae). Nuytsia 19 198–199.

Stevens PF (2009) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008. www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb

Townsend CC (1993) Amaranthaceae. K Kubitzki, JG Rohwer, V Bittrich (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Vol. II, Flowering Plants – Dicotyledons – Magnoliid, Hammamelid and Caryophyllid Families. pp. 71–91. (Springer-Verlag; Berlin)

Veenstra-Quah AA, Milne J, Kolesik P (2007) Taxonomy and biology of two new species of gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infesting Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Chenopodiaceae) in Australian salt marshes. Australian Journal of Entomology 46 198–206.

Walsh NG (1996) Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae. Flora of Victoria 3 129–215.

Wilson PG (1972) A taxonomic revision of the genus Tecticornia (Chenopodiaceae). Nuytsia 1 277–288

Wilson PG (1980) A revision of the Australian species of Salicornieae (Chenopodiaceae). Nuytsia 3 1–154.

Wilson PG (1983) A taxonomic revision of tribe Chenoposieae (Chenopodiaceae) in Australia. Nuytsia 4 135–262.

Wilson PG (1984) Chenopodiaceae. Flora of Australia 4 81–316.

Note: Web addresses can and do change: a list of current web addresses will be maintained on the Flora of Tasmania Online website [www.tmag.tas.gov.au/floratasmania].

INDEX

?Suaeda sp. A 23

A

Achatocarpaceae 1

Alternanthera 3

Alternanthera denticulata 3

Alternanthera sessilis 3

Alternanthera triandra var. denticulata 3

Amaranth 4, 5

Amaranthaceae 1

Amaranthus 1, 4

Amaranthus albus 5

Amaranthus deflexus 4

Amaranthus graecizans subsp. silvestris 4

Amaranthus hybridus 5

Amaranthus hybridus subsp. incurvatus 5

Amaranthus powellii 5

Amaranthus retroflexus 5

Amaranthus spinosus 4

Ambrina 15

Ambrina pumilio 16

Arthrocnemum arbusculum 23

Arthrocnemum heptiflorum 20, 22

Arthrocnemum section Leiosperma 22

Arthrocnemum section Trachysperma 22

Arthrocnemum subgenus Angianthemum 22

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Atriplex 1, 7

Atriplex australasica 9

Atriplex billardierei 11

Atriplex billardieri 11

Atriplex chrystallina 11

Atriplex cinerea 11

Atriplex cinerea f. appendiculata 11

Atriplex cinerea var. adscendens 11

Atriplex cinerea var. elaeagnoides 11

Atriplex cinerea var. globulosa 11

Atriplex cinerea var. palmata 11

Atriplex crystallina 11

Atriplex denticulata 10

Atriplex elaeagnoides 11

Atriplex flagellaris 10

Atriplex glomulifera 15

Atriplex halimus var. adscendens 11

Atriplex hastata 8

Atriplex hastata var. salina 8

Atriplex hortensis 8

Atriplex neurivalvis 10

Atriplex paludosa 10

Atriplex paludosa subsp. baudinii 11

Atriplex paludosa subsp. cordata 11

Atriplex paludosa subsp. eupaludosa 10

Atriplex paludosa subsp. moquiniana 11

Atriplex paludosa subsp. paludosa 10

Atriplex paludosa subsp. tridentata 10

Atriplex paludosa var. cordata 11

Atriplex patula 9

Atriplex patula var. angustifolia 9

Atriplex patula var. gunnii 9

Atriplex patula var. littoralis 9

Atriplex patula var. serratifolia 9

Atriplex prostrata 8

Atriplex reniformis 11

Atriplex semibaccata 10

Atriplex semibaccata var. appendiculata 10

Atriplex semibaccata var. gracilis 10

Atriplex suberecta 10

Atriplex subgenus Theleophyton 12

Atriplicaceae 2

Austral Sea-blite 24

B

Barilla 11

Bassia 1, 18

Bassia scoparia 18

Beaded Glasswort 20, 21

Beet 1, 20

Beetberry 12

Beetroot 1, 20

Berry Saltbush 10

Beta 1, 19

Beta maritima 20

Beta vulgaris 20

Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima 20

Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris 20

Beta vulgaris var. maritima 20

Beta vulgaris var. perennis 20

Betaceae 2

Blite Goosefoot 12

Blitum 12

Blitum glandulosum 16

Blitum pumilio 16

Bonefruit 19

Buckbush 24

Burning Bush 18

C

Caryophyllaceae 1

Caryophyllales 1

Chard 1

Chenopodiaceae 1, 2

Chenopodina 23

Chenopodina australis 24

Chenopodina maritima 23

Chenopodium 1, 12

Chenopodium album 13

Chenopodium album subsp. hastatum 13

Chenopodium album var. hastatum 13

Chenopodium album var. striatiforme 13

Chenopodium ambiguum 13

Chenopodium ambiguum var. majus 13

Chenopodium ambiguum var. minus 13

Chenopodium australe 24

Chenopodium biforme 14

Chenopodium browneanum 13

Chenopodium capitatum 12

Chenopodium congestum 14

Chenopodium erosum 14

Chenopodium furfuraceum 17

Chenopodium glandulosum 16

Chenopodium glaucum 13

Chenopodium glaucum f. minus 13

Chenopodium glaucum subsp. ambiguum 13

Chenopodium glaucum var. ambiguum 13

Chenopodium glaucum var. littorale 13

Chenopodium insulare 24

Chenopodium lanceolatum 13

Chenopodium littorale 13

Chenopodium murale 14

Chenopodium murale var. biforme 14

Chenopodium myriocephalum 15

Chenopodium olidum 14

Chenopodium probstii 13

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Chenopodium pumilio 16

Chenopodium pumilio f. glandulosa 16

Chenopodium pumilio var. oblongifolium 16

Chenopodium scoparia 18

Chenopodium section Ambrina 15

Chenopodium section Dysphania 15

Chenopodium section Orthosporum 15

Chenopodium section Polygonoidea 16

Chenopodium section Tetrasepala 15

Chenopodium striatiforme 13

Chenopodium triangulare subsp. convolvulinum 17

Chenopodium triangulare var. convolvulinium 17

Chenopodium vulvaria 14

Clammy Goosefoot 16

Climbing Saltbush 17

Coast Bonefruit 19

Coast Saltbush 11

Coastal Saltbush 17

Common Orache 9

Creeping Saltbush 10

Crumbweed 16

Cypress 18

D

Dipteranthemum 5

Dysphania 1, 15

Dysphania glomulifera 15, 16

Dysphania glomulifera subsp. eremea 16

Dysphania glomulifera subsp. glomulifera 15

Dysphania myriocephala 15

Dysphania pumilio 16

Dysphania section Caudatae 15

Dysphania section Tetrasepala 15

Dysphaniaceae 2

E

Einadia 1, 16

Einadia nutans 17

Einadia nutans subsp. nutans 17

Enchylaena 19

F

Fat Hen 13, 14

Fodder Beet 20

G

Garden Orache 8

Glasswort 20, 21, 22, 23

Glaucous Goosefoot 13

Glistening Saltbush 11

Goosefoot 12, 13, 14, 16

Green Fat Hen 14

Grey Saltbush 11

H

Halocnemum arbuscula 23

Halosarcia 22

Hemichroa 6, 7

Hemichroa pentandra 7

Hen 13, 14

I

Indian Paint 12

J

Joyweed 3

K

Kochia 18

Kochia scoparia 18

L

Lagoon Saltbush 10

Lerchea maritima var. australis 24

Lesser Joyweed 3

M

Maireana 19

Marsh Saltbush 10

Marsh Samphire 20, 21, 22

N

Native Orache 9

Neobassia 19

Neophema chrysogaster 21

Neopreissia 7

Neopreissia cinerea 11

Nettle-leaf Goosefoot 14

Nodding Saltbush 17

O

Oak-leaf Goosefoot 13

Obione 7

Obione billardierei 11

Obione billardieri 11

Orache 8, 9

Orange-bellied Parrot 21

Orthosporum 15

Osteocarpum 19

P

Pachycornia 22

Pachycornia arbuscula 23

Pale Goosefoot 13

Parrot 21

Pigweed 15

Polycnemum pentandrum 7

Powellís Amaranth 5

Prickly Saltwort 24

Ptilotus 5

Ptilotus section Trichinium 5

Ptilotus spathulatus 6

Ptilotus spathulatus f. angustatus 6

Ptilotus spathulatus f. spathulatus 6

Pussy Tails 6

R

Rhagodia 1, 17

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Rhagodia baccata 17

Rhagodia baccata var. candolleana 17

Rhagodia baccata var. congesta 14

Rhagodia baccata var. parvifolia 17

Rhagodia billardierei 17

Rhagodia billardierei var. congesta 14

Rhagodia candolleana 17

Rhagodia candolleana subsp. argentea 18

Rhagodia candolleana subsp. candolleana 17

Rhagodia chenopodioides 17

Rhagodia congesta 14

Rhagodia nutans 17

Rhagodia nutans var. fallacina 17

Rock Joyweed 3

Roly-poly 24

Rough-leaved Goosefoot 16

S

Salicornia arbuscula 23

Salicornia australis Sol. ex. Benth. 20

Salicornia australis Sol. ex F.Muell. 20

Salicornia australis Sol. ex. Rodway 20

Salicornia blackiana 22

Salicornia indica 20

Salicornia pachystachya 22

Salicornia quinqueflora 20

Salicorniaceae 2

Salsola 1, 24

Salsola australis 25

Salsola kali 25

Salsola kali subsp. tragus 25

Salsola macrophylla 25

Salsola tragus 25

Salsolaceae 2

Saltbush 10, 11, 17

Saltwort 24

Samphire 20, 21, 22

Sarcocornia 1, 20

Sarcocornia blackiana 22

Sarcocornia globosa 20

Sarcocornia quinqueflora 20

Sarcocornia quinqueflora subsp. quinqueflora 21

Sarcocornia quinqueflora subsp. tasmanica 21

Schoberia australis 24

Sclerolaena 19

Sclerostegia 1, 22

Sclerostegia arbuscula 23

Seaberry Saltbush 17

Sea-blite 24

Shrubby Glasswort 23

Silver Beet 20

Small Crumbweed 16

Soft Buckbush 24

Southern Sea-blite 24

Sowbane 14

Spear Orache 9

Spinach 1, 12

Spinach Beet 1

Spinacia 1

Spinaciaceae 2

Spreading Amaranth 4

Stiff Tumbleweed 5

Stinking Goosefoot 14

Strawberry Bites 12

Strawberry Spinach 12

Suaeda 1, 23

Suaeda australis 24

Suaeda maritima 23, 24

Suaeda maritima var. australis 24

Suaeda maritima var. maritima 23

Suaeda section Chenopodina 23

Suaeda section Schanginia 16

Suaeda sp. A 23

Sugarbeet 1

Sugar Beet 20

Summer Cypress 18

Swiss Chard 1

T

Tecticornia 22

Tecticornia arbuscula 23

Tegicornia 22

Theleophyton 7, 12

Theleophyton billardierei 11

Theleophyton billardieri 11

Thick-head Glasswort 22

Threlkeldia 1, 19

Threlkeldia diffusa 19

Threlkeldia diffusa var. latifolia 19

Threlkeldia drupata 19

Threlkeldia inchoate 19

Trailing Hemichroa 7

Trichinium 5

Trichinium mucronatum 6

Trichinium spathulatum 6

Tumbleweed 5

W

White Goosefoot 13

Wild Beet 20

[1] This work can be cited as: Duretto MF, Morris DI (2011) 97 Amaranthaceae, version 2011:1. In MF Duretto (Ed.) Flora of Tasmania Online. 29 pp. (Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery: Hobart). www.tmag.tas.gov.au/floratasmania

[2] Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery, Private Bag 4, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia.

© Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery. ISBN 978-1-921599-52-1 (PDF).